Presentation on theme: "Final Exam Review PP. Which of the following describes the Stono Rebellion? A) a group of Virginia colonists, unhappy with the presence of Indians in."— Presentation transcript:
Which of the following describes the Stono Rebellion? A) a group of Virginia colonists, unhappy with the presence of Indians in the colony, attacked various Indian tribes, burned down the capital of Jamestown and forced the royal governor and his troops to flee B) a charismatic black preacher inspired a slave uprising that resulted in the deaths of 56 whites in Virginia C) promised their freedom by the Spanish governor of Florida, a group of mostly Catholic slaves organized a rebellion in South Carolina D) a group of vigilantes living in Pennsylvania murdered 20 Indians following the French & Indian War E) 26 slaves were hanged upon discovery of plans of a revolt in Virginia organized by a slave named Gabriel
Answer: C) promised their freedom by the Spanish governor of Florida, a group of mostly Catholic slaves organized a rebellion in South Carolina Explanation: The 1739 Stono Rebellion was the largest slave uprising in the British American colonies. A group of about 20 slaves seized arms, marched south towards Florida and were eventually captured or killed. The revolt resulted in the deaths of over 100 whites and blacks and led to the passage of the 1740 Negro Act limiting the privileges of slaves. Other choices: A)Bacon's Rebellion; B) Nat Turner's Revolt; D) Paxton Boys; E) Prosser's (or Gabriel's) Rebellion.
Which of the following statements about Anne Hutchinson is not true? A) she was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony B) she was accused of teaching both men and women in her home C) when on trial, she admitted to receiving divine revelation from God for her beliefs D) she was accused of preaching Quaker doctrines E) she and most of her family were eventually killed by Indians in 1643
Answer D) she was accused of preaching Quaker doctrines Explanation: Anne Hutchinson took a courageous stand when confronted by the political and religious authorities in Massachusetts Bay. She was put on trial for what were considered her heretical beliefs and accused of criticizing the Puritan ministers as well as teaching both men and women in Bible studies in her home. She was expelled from Massachusetts Bay in 1638. In her trial testimony she stated to the court "...you have no power over my body, neither can you do me any harme, for I am in the hands of the eternall Jehovah my Saviour, I am at his appointment, the bounds of my habitation are cast in heaven, no further doe I esteeme of any mortal man than creatures in his hand, I feare none but the great Jehovah, which hath foretold me of these things, and I doe verily beleeve that he will deliver me out of our hands, therefore take heed how you proceed against me; for I know that for this you goe about to doe to me, God will ruine you and your posterity, and this whole state."
The 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts A) resulted in no actual arrests of newspaper editors B) made it easier for naturalized citizens to attain voting status C) decreased the level of partisanship in American politics D) led to the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which established the principle of nullification E) were supported equally by Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
Answer D) led to the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which established the principle of nullification Explanation: The Federalist-sponsored Alien and Sedition Acts were passed by Congress during the quasi-war with France and intended to limit criticism of the government and to make it more difficult for naturalized citizens to vote. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in response, encouraging states to disobey national laws they found unconstitutional. This principle of nullification became a key philosophical tenet of the states' rights movement that led to the secession of the South prior to the Civil War.
When George Washington decided to not seek a third term as president, he wrote a Farewell Address in 1796 in which he A) suggested that the Constitution be changed by acts of Congress as well as amendments B) urged Americans to support the U.S. Bank C) warned of the dangers of entangling foreign alliances D) called for the establishment of a national university E) made no mention of the impact of partisan politics
Answer C) warned of the dangers of entangling foreign alliances Explanation: Washington's Farewell Address provided important guidance for the nation. He warned of the danger of factionalism, urged that the Constitution only be changed by amendments, and encouraged the avoidance of foreign alliances: "It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world..."
The Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson tended to favor A) maintenance of the public order, even if that required federal troops B) strict interpretation of the Constitution to defend states' rights C) an affiliation with the British in foreign affairs D) the establishment of a national bank E) a strong, centralized national government
Answer B) strict interpretation of the Constitution to defend states' rights Explanation: One of the main goals of the Republicans was to resist the attempts of the Hamilton-led Federalists to expand the powers of the national government. The Republicans opposed the congressional charter of the Bank of the U.S., for example, as this was not listed in Article I of the Constitution as a power of Congress. Federalists responded that the "necessary and propoer" clause gave Congress the latitutde to enact this type of legislation.
Which of the following statements about the Report on Manufactures is inaccurate? A) it was proposed by Alexander Hamilton B) one of its goals was to raise revenue for the national government C) it proposed "bounties" or subsidies to American industries D) it was supported enthusiastically by representatives from both New England and Southern states, including Thomas Jefferson and James Madison E) it recommended moderate tariffs to spur economic growth in the U.S.
Answer D) it was supported enthusiastically by representatives from both New England and Southern states, including Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Explanation: Alexander Hamilton's Report on Manufactures proposed a plan of subsidies and tariffs to provide support for American industries. Jefferson and Madison, along with others in the South, opposed elements of the plan, particularly the subsidies to industry.
The rebellion led by Daniel Shays A) took place in western Pennsylvania and was in response to a tax on whiskey B) was dismissed by virtually all observers as a minor incident C) involved debt-ridden farmers seeking relief from their mortgage payments D) resulted in no actual casualties or deaths E) greatly concerned Thomas Jefferson, then in France
Answer C) involved debt-ridden farmers seeking relief from their mortgage payments Explanation: Daniel Shays led a group of farmers in a revolt in western Massachusetts in an attempt to get out from under crushing mortgage debts. The rebellion resulted in four deaths before it was suppressed. Most participants, including Shays, were eventually pardoned. But it concerned some observers, such as George Washington, who saw it as an indication of the potential for domestic unrest. Completely unalarmed was Thomas Jefferson, who wrote "The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure."
Since the addition of the Bill of Rights in 1791, the U.S. Constitution has been amended 17 times. Which of the following proposed amendments was not approved? A) fixed the date for the start of Congress (January 3rd) and the inauguration of the president (January 20th) B) equal rights for men and women C) income tax allowed to be collected by national government D) Washington, D.C. being represented in the Electoral College E) presidency limited to two terms or a maximum of 10 years
Answer B) equal rights for men and women Explanation: The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was first proposed to Congress in 1923 by Alice Paul. It read "Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation." Despite numerous attempts, it has never reached the 3/4 of the states approval requirement for the addition of an amendment. All of the other amendments have been approved: A) 1932; C) 1909; D) 1960: E) 1947.
Which of the following is a feature of the 1787 Northwest Ordinance? A) slavery was forbidden in the territory north of the Ohio River B) all state debts were to be assumed by Congress C) a section of land was to be set aside for education D) land was to be divided into townships, six miles on a side E) it authorized the seizure of Indian land by federal land agents without compensation
Answer A) slavery was forbidden in the territory north of the Ohio River Explanation: The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established the pattern for the admission of new states to the United States. Significantly, they were to enter as equals to the original 13. By banning slavery, it essentially established the Ohio River as the division between free and slave states. It also made reference to lands settled by Indians:"The utmost good faith shall always be observed towards the Indians; their land and property shall never be taken without their consent; and, in their property, rights, and liberty, they shall never be invaded or disturbed." Unfortunately this portion of the Ordinance was rarely enforced.
One result of the Great Awakening was that it A) renewed colonists' respect for authority B) unified colonial congregations C) reduced religious enthusiasm in the colonies D) caused farmers to participate more fully in colonial government E) led to a greater awareness of democratic concepts, such as freedom of conscience
Answer E) led to a greater awareness of democratic concepts, such as freedom of conscience Explanation: The Great Awakening led to divisions among Protestant congregations into New and Old Light factions, increased religious fervor, helped erode respect for religious authority by challenging some of the traditional denominations, and promoted democratic concepts, including a sense of freedom of conscience. It had no impact on farmer participation in colonial government.
Which of the following statements characterizes both the First and Second Great Awakening? A) Enlightenment thinking led to a new appreciation of the natural laws that govern the universe B) membership in the Anglican Church increased sharply C) revivals took place exclusively in camp meetings, often in wilderness settings D) Protestant ministers led religious services that often featured emotional responses from attendees E) a Calvinist belief in salvation solely through election by God
Answer D) Protestant ministers led religious meetings that often featured emotional responses from attendees Explanation: Both the First Great Awakening (1730s and 1740s) and the Second (early 19th century) featured appeals to emotion that led to conversion experiences for participants. Each were important elements in the development of American revivalism which grew in the 20th century and included massive gatherings in tents and sports stadiums. While most preachers of the Great Awakening such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield were Calvinists, during the Second Great Awakening the concept of Arminianism, which preached that individuals had a role in their salvation, gained ground.
American System Which of the following was not part of Henry Clay's American System? A) the building of canals by the national government B) local or "pet" banks independent from the national bank C) protective tariffs D) a national bank E) the building of roads by the national government
Answer: B) local or "pet" banks independent from the national bank Explanation: The American System was Clay's grand scheme to further the economic growth of the U.S. following the War of 1812. It sought to support American industry by building roads and canals financed by the federal government, a national bank, and high protective tariffs. Clay's chief opponent, President Andrew Jackson, opposed a national bank and supported local or "pet" banks.
Missouri Compromise Which of the following is/are true of the Missouri Compromise? A) maintained the balance of slave and free states in the U.S. Senate B) admitted Missouri as a slave state C) admitted Maine as a free state D) prevented the establishment of any more new slave states north of latitude 36°30' E) all of the above
Answer: E) all of the above Explanation: Henry Clay proposed the Missouri Compromise in an attempt to prevent conflict between northern and southern states. It brought Maine, formerly part of Massachusetts, in to the U.S. as a free state and Missouri as a state allowing slavery. It also established the 36°30' latitude line as a boundary between slavery and freedom for future states.
Marbury v. Madison Which of the following statements about the 1803 Marbury v. Madison case are accurate? I. It established the principle of judicial review, in which the Supreme Court can rule a law unconstitutional II. It involved federal judges appointed by John Adams prior to his leaving office in 1801 III. It overturned parts of the Judiciary Act of 1789 IV. It was a clear and complete victory for the Federalists, as it made for a more powerful Supreme Court V. It was a clear and complete victory for the Democrat-Republicans, as it denied Federalists control of federal judgeships A) I, II, III, and V only B) I, III, and IV only C) I, II, and III only D) I, II, and IV only E) all of the statements are accurate
Answer: C) I, II, and III only Explanation: As John Adams left office in 1801, he appointed a number of Federalist judges to positions in an attempt to continue Federalist influence. Incoming President Thomas Jefferson refused to recognize the appointment of these "midnight judges," leading to the Marbury case. Chief Justice John Marshall awarded a partial victory to both the Federalist and Democrat-Republican positions, as the Federalist appointees were not awarded the judgeships, but the Supreme Court's power was signficantly expanded, as nowhere in the Constitution is it stated that the Court can overrule a law (in this case the 1789 Judiciary Act) of Congress.
Identify the items below that were elements of Henry Clay's American System I. Roads and canals paid for by the federal government II. Low tariffs to keep domestic prices down III. High tariffs to protect American industry IV. Support for the Second Bank of the U.S. (A) I, II, and IV only (B) II, III, and IV only (C) I, III, and IV only (D) I and II only (E) III and IV only
Answer: (C) I, III, and IV only Explanation: Clay and his supporters promoted the American System which included internal improvements, such as roads and canals, paid for by the federal government, the Second Bank of the U.S., and high protective tariffs to protect American industry.
Republican Motherhood (A) was unrelated to the eventual granting of the right to vote to women (B) stated that 19th century women were essentially equal with men (C) included the concept that women had the important role of instilling their children with values conducive to a healthy republic (D) was opposed by virtually all Christian ministers (E) was familiar as a term to 19th century historians
Answer: Answer: (C) included the concept that women had the important role of instilling their children with values conducive to a healthy republic Explanation: The American Revolutionary War not only changed the world in terms of the concepts of personal independence and democracy, it altered the traditional view of the role of women. While not granting women anything near to equality with men, the ideals of the Revolution led many Americans to see women as essential in transmitting newly-held values to the next generation. Historian Linda Kerber writes: "Republican Motherhood... guaranteed the steady infusion of virtues into the Republic,... The mother, and not the masses came to be seen as the custodian of civic morality." This important duty led to an increasing public sphere role for women and to the founding of women's colleges, including Mount Holyoke. The term "Republican Motherhood" began to be used by historians in the late 20th century.
In the 1803 Marbury v. Madison decision, the Supreme Court (A) established the principle that the federal government had more authority than state governments (B) allowed the Federalist judges appointed by outgoing President John Adams to take their positions (C) determined it did not have the power to rule a law of Congress to be unconstitutional (D) established the tradition of judicial review and became an equally powerful branch of the federal government (E) acknowledged its inferior role to both Congress and the president
Answer: (D) established the tradition of judicial review and became an equally powerful branch of the federal government Explanation: By refusing to allow the last-minute "Midnight Judges" appointments of outgoing Federalist John Adams, Chief Justice John Marshall established the principle of judicial review by overruling a law of Congress(the Judiciary Act of 1789). While Jefferson's Democrat-Republican judges assumed office, this decision in fact was a huge victory for those desiring a more powerful judicial branch, which now had the authority to challenge both the laws of Congress and the actions of the president, as in U.S. v. Nixon, in which President Richard Nixon was required to turn over Watergate tapes to a special prosecutor appointed by Congress.
Which of the following statements about the Second Great Awakening is/are accurate? I. It led to the growth of several denominations, including Baptists and Methodists II. In some areas, it led to biracial congregations as both whites and blacks underwent conversion experiences III. Some of the revival meetings lasted for a week or longer IV. Polygamy became an accepted practice among participants. (A) all of the statements are accurate (B) none of the statements are accurate (C) I, II, and IV only (D) I, II, and III only (E) I and III only
Answer: (D) I, II, and III only Explanation: The Second Great Awakening was a series of religious revivals that changed the landscape of American religion. Led mainly by Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian itinerant preachers, the revivals often lasted for days or weeks and included emotional responses from participants. The revivals reached out to both blacks and whites and some churches developed biracial congregations, though church leadership was still in the hands of whites. Polygamy developed as a practice among Mormons, a religious sect that developed in the 1830s.
The Whig Party that arose in the 1830s (A) appealed to upwardly mobile groups in the North, such as prosperous farmers, merchants, and skilled workers (B) united both Northern and Southern factions in support of high tariffs (C) opposed the American System of roads and canals financed with federal funds (D) leaned heavily on the support of the Masons, an organization that claimed George Washington, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson as members (E) was mainly comprised of Roman Catholics and non- evangelical Protestants
Answer: (A) appealed to upwardly mobile groups in the North, such as prosperous farmers, merchants, and skilled workers Explanation: The Whig Party formed itself with former members of the Anti- Masonic Party and opponents of Andrew Jackson. Its Northern and Southern wings disagreed on many issues, including slavery and tariffs. Many of its members were evangelical Protestants who supported the American System of Henry Clay and comprised the newly emerging middle class.Whig William Henry Harrison defeated Democrat Martin Van Buren in the election of 1840, only to die 32 days after his inauguration.
Place these significant 1850s events in the correct chronological order: I. John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry II. Lincoln elected president III. Passage of Kansas-Nebraska Act IV. Lincoln-Douglas Debates V. Dred Scott decision (A) I-III-IV-V-II (B) III-IV-V-I-II (C) III-V-IV-I-II (D) IV-III-V-I-II (E) V-III-IV-II-I
Answer: (C) III-V-IV-I-II Explanation: From the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act until Lincoln's election in 1860, the U.S. witnessed a deteriorating political climate as the debate over slavery's existence and extension dominated discussion. The 1857 Dred Scott decision, in which Congress' right to control slavery in the territories was overturned, helped to further harden positions, which were debated by senatorial candidates Lincoln and Douglas in the 1858 Illinois contest. Brown's unsuccessful attempt in 1859 to launch a slave revolt in Virginia added more fuel to the fire. Within a month of Lincoln's election, South Carolina declared its intention to secede from the Union. III-Kansas-Nebraska Act-1854 V-Dred Scott decision-1857 IV-Lincoln-Douglas debates-1858 I-John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry-1859 II-Lincoln elected president-1860
What did the Ku Klux Klan, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses have as a common intent? (A) preventing Southern black citizens from voting (B) keeping poor whites under control (C) keeping the Republican Party in power in the South (D) preventing labor unions from forming (E) preventing Southern states from rejoining the Union
Answer: (A) preventing Southern black citizens from voting Explanation: The Ku Klux Klan terrorized blacks and Republicans throughout the South. Literacy tests were applied to blacks to prevent them from voting, as were grandfather clauses which stated that one was eligible to vote only if his grandfather could vote. All were effective means to counter the political gains made by blacks following the Civil War.
The Compromise of 1877 (A) proved to be a huge victory for the ex-slaves and Freedmen's Bureau programs (B) awarded the presidency to Tilden, the Democratic candidate (C) marked the first time a presidential election had been disputed (D) effectively ended Reconstruction, as federal troops were withdrawn from the South and Hayes was named president (E) provided for the continued occupation of Southern states by the U.S. military
Answer: (D) effectively ended Reconstruction, as federal troops were withdrawn from the South and Hayes was named president Explanation: The disputed election of 1876 provided an opportunity to end the military governance of the South and provide Republicans with the presidency. Democrat William Tilden gathered more popular votes than Republican Rutherford Hayes, but several state electoral slates were disputed. An electoral commission awarded the presidency to Hayes and federal troops left the South in what was termed the Compromise of 1877.
In the 1890s which of the following would most likely have advocated the abolition of child labor, better working conditions for women, one day off during the week, and the right of every worker to a living wage? (A) a member of the Grange (B) a Wall Street banker (C) a Social Gospel minister (D) a factory owner (E) a western cattle rancher
Answer: (C) a Social Gospel minister Explanation: The leaders of the Social Gospel movement which emerged in the late 19th century attempted to apply biblical teachings to problems associated with industrialization and urbanization. Under the leadership of Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch the movement gained strengthen among liberal Protestant denominations.
All but which of the following statements are true of the Populist Party? (A) it joined with the Democrats in supporting William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 presidential election (B) it supported the unlimited coinage of silver (C) its roots were in the urban reform ideals of Social Gospel ministers (D) it supported restrictions on immigration (E) it favored the public ownership of railroads
Answer: (C) its roots were in the urban reform ideals of Social Gospel ministers Explanation: Arising from the farm alliances of the 1870s and 1880s, the Populists responded to the growth of industrialism with a series of proposals considered radical by many in the 1890s. The Populist Party opposed the "concentrated capital" of banks and big businesses and criticized many of the effects of industrialism on American society It supported many labor union goals, including restricting immigration. The 1892 Populist Party platform stated: "The conditions which surround us best justify our co-operation; we meet in the midst of a nation brought to the verge of moral, political and material ruin. Corruption dominates the ballot-box.... The people are demoralized;... public opinion silenced.... homes covered with mortgages, labor impoverished, and the land concentrating in the hands of capitalists."
Child labor was one target of Progressive reforms Which of the following would most likely have supported Progressive reforms in the first decades of the 20th century? (A) leaders of urban political machines (B) steel and oil company owners (C) white middle class city residents (D) bankers (E) migrant farm workers
Answer: (C) white middle class city residents Explanation: Progressivism was a largely urban movement of young white middle class and professional citizens who sought to use government to help address the ills of society. Progressives had their greatest impact on American life from 1900-1920.
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (A) was used to settle the Russo-Japanese War and earned Theodore Roosevelt the Nobel Peace Prize (B) was passed by both houses of Congress (C) in effect reversed the Monroe Doctrine (D) asserted that the U.S. had the right to intervene militarily in Latin America to preserve order (E) warned Europe that the U.S. desired a sphere of influence in China
Answer: (D) asserted that the U.S. had the right to intervene militarily in Latin America to preserve order Explanation: The Roosevelt Corollary, presented in a speech to Congress in 1904, extended the Monroe Doctrine by asserting that if economic order was needed to be maintained in a Latin American nation, the U.S. would intervene.
The Scopes Trial indicated that (A) American fundamentalism was dead (B) Darwin's theory of evolution could be taught without controversy in American public schools (C) tension between rural, traditional values and urban, modern values was increasing in American society (D) religious teachings no longer had meaning for most Americans (E) the Creation story was accepted as metaphorical, not literal by most Tennessee residents
Answer: (C) tension between rural, traditional values and urban, modern values was increasing in American society Explanation: The 1925 Scopes Trial in Dayton, Tennessee served as a microcosm of the tensions growing in American society among a number of groups. During the trial, defense attorney Clarence Darrow cross-examined prosecuting attorney William Jennings Bryan in a stunning exposé of the literal biblical interpretation held by many traditional believers.
The containment policy of the U.S. to restrict Soviet expansion during the early years of the Cold War was first promoted by which of the following individuals? (A) U.S. diplomat George Kennan (B) British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (C) Secretary of State George Marshall (D) Senator Joseph McCarthy (E) President Harry S. Truman
Answer: (A) U.S. diplomat George Kennan Explanation: Preventing the expansion of Soviet influence was the central tenet of containment, a policy first recommended by George Kennan in a 1946 telegram. Kennan explained: "My conviction that problem is within our power to solve and that without recourse to any general military conflict." Containment represented a middle ground position between confrontation and detente and guided U.S. policy through much of the the Cold War.
The Bay of Pigs invasion (A) resulted in a thaw in American-Soviet relations (B) was planned and organized by CIA agents during the Eisenhower administration, but approved by newly elected President Kennedy (C) took place after U-2 flights over Cuba revealed the presence of offensive Soviet missiles being installed (D) was supported by massive American air support (E) was intended to return Fulgencio Batista to power in Cuba
Answer: (B) was planned and organized by CIA agents during the Eisenhower administration, but approved by newly elected President Kennedy Explanation: The failed invasion at the Bay of Pigs was organized by the CIA during the Eisenhower administration but approved and carried out in the first months of President Kennedy's administration in 1961. Its goal was to foment a revolt among anti-Castro forces and overthrow the pro-Soviet Castro regime. Previiously planned U.S. air support was not provided and the invaders were easily captured and imprisoned. The embarassing defeat for U.S. policy emboldened the Soviet Union which in 1962 placed offensive missiles in Cuba and led to a major Cold War confrontation.
In the 1978 Iranian hostage crisis (A) the Shah of Iran re-established control of the nation (B) the Ayatollah Khomeini announced that a new secular government would replace the Shah's regime (C) the hostages were released by their captors after 444 days, just as Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as president (D) a daring rescue mission ordered by President Jimmy Carter resulted in the freeing of the hostages at the American Embassy (E) one group of the hostages was executed by their Iranian captors
Answer: (C) the hostages were released by their captors after 444 days, just as Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as president Explanation: A group of 66 Americans were taken hostage at the U.S. Embassy in Teheran in 1978 by Iranian militants following the Islamic leader Ayatollah Khomieni and calling themselves the National Guard. A rescue attempt by the U.S. failed as helicopters crashed in the desert and eight American soldiers were killed. All of the hostages were released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan was inaugurated president. The crisis proved to be one of a series of embarassing events for the Carter administration.
In the Iran-Contra crisis (A) the CIA followed congressional guidelines in carrying out its support for the contra rebels in Nicaragua (B) President Reagan quickly admitted the U.S. role and assumed full responsibility for the actions of Col. Oliver North and other U.S. personnel (C) one goal was the freeing of American hostages being held at the U.S. embassy in Iran (D) Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger was indicted on two counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice (E) arms were sold to Iran through Lebanese agents
Answer: (D) Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger was indicted on two counts of perjury and one count of obstruction of justice Explanation: Reagan's National Security Adviser Robert McFarlane approved a plan to attempt to both free American hostages being held in Lebanon and provide assistance to the anti-communist contra forces in Nicaragua. Iran was subject to an American arms embargo during its war with Iraq and Congress had passed measures to restrict aid in Nicaragua. Israel ended up sending 96 American-made antitank missiles to Iran. Pres. Reagan was called to testify before the Tower Commission investigating the scandal and offered conflicting testimony about his own knowledge of the affair. National Security aide Oliver North, who helped coordinate the complicated transactions, was convicted of minor violations, but his conviction was overturned on appeal. Weinberger was indicted, but pardoned by President George H.W. Bush in 1992 before a trial could begin.
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution resulted in (A) the withdrawal of the French troops from Vietnam (B) the overthrow of the Diem regime in South Vietnam (C) an escalation in the bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong (D) a vote of Congressional support for increased U.S. military activity in Vietnam (E) a formal declaration of war on North Vietnam
Answer: (D) a vote of Congressional support for increased U.S. military activity in Vietnam Explanation: While not a formal declaration of war, the Tonkin Gulf Resolution authorized an expansion of U.S. military activity in Vietnam. It passed by overwhelming votes of 416-0 in the House of Representatives and 88-2 in the Senate.