2 LIFE IN SOCIETYHumans are social beings- we live and work in groups and interact in predictable ways.This structure helps people know what is expected of them in most social situations and what they can expect from others.It also ensures that the general nature of the society remains stable from one generation to the next.
3 BUILDING BLOCKS OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE Social Structure- the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction.Status- a socially defined position in a group or society.Role- the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status
4 STATUS Each individual in society occupies several statuses. For example, an individual can be a teacher, father, husband, African American, and a church member all at the same time.Ascribed Status- assigned according to qualities beyond a person’s controlAchieved Status- acquired through and individual’s effortsMaster Status- can be ascribed or achieved. Refers to an overall image.Ex: student, occupation, parenthood, etc.A person’s master status can be achieved such as being a doctor or be ascribed such as being a woman.
5 ROLES You occupy a status, but you play a role. Reciprocal Roles- corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses.Ex: Husband & WifeRole Expectations- socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a roleRole Performance- a person’s actual role behavior does not always match the behavior that is expected.The role of coaches and athletes are reciprocal in that they rely upon each other.
6 ROLES CONT. Role Set- different roles attached to a single status Role Conflict- occurs when fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another statusRole Strain- a person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single statusMany working families face role conflict because the needs of their family and the requirements of work demand a great deal of time
7 SOCIAL INSTITUTIONSSocial Institution- when statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of societyThe basic needs of society include providing physical and emotional support, transmitting knowledge, producing goods and services, and maintaining social controlMarti
8 TYPES OF SOCIAL INTERACTION When you play a role, most of the time you have to interact with others.These are the 5 types of interaction that take place in societies throughout the world.ExchangeCompetitionConflictCooperationAccommodation
9 Couples in relationships often have interactions based on exchange Exchange- whenever people interact in an effort to receive a reward or return for their actionsReciprocity- the idea that if you do something for someone, that person owes you something in returnExchange Theory- Belief that people are motivated by self-interest in their interactions with other peopleCouples in relationships often have interactions based on exchange
10 COMPETITIONCompetition- occurs when two or more people or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attainCommon feature of Western societiesSome scholars consider it to be the cornerstone of the capitalist economic system and the democratic form of government
11 CONFLICTConflict- the deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another personFour sources of conflictWarsDisagreements within groupsLegal disputesClashes over ideology
12 COOPERATIONCooperation- occurs when two or more people or groups work together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one personCooperation is often used along with other forms of interactionFor example, individuals who go out for a team sport often compete with one another to make the varsity team.By using cooperation members of a group can work together to complete a goal that might have been unobtainable by an individual
13 ACCOMMODATIONAccommodation- state of balance between cooperation and conflictCompromise- occurs when two parties both give up something to come to a mutual agreementThe United Nations is a global organization that tries to solve world problems through cooperation and compromise
14 TYPES OF SOCIETIESGroup- a set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identityThe largest and most complex groups that are studied by sociologists are societiesSubsistence Strategies- the way a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members
15 PREINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES Preindustrial Society- food production which is carried out through the use of human and animal labor is the main economic activityHunting and Gathering Societies- The main form of food production is the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animalsPastoral Society- rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needsDivision of Labor- the specialization by individuals or groups in performance
16 PREINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES CONT. Horticultural Society- fruits and vegetables are grown in a garden to provide the main source of foodAgricultural Society- animals are used to pull plows to till the fields.This allows agriculturalists to plant more crops than is possible when only human labor is usedBarter- the exchange of a good or service
17 INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIESIndustrial Societies- emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goodsUrbanization- the concentration of the population is located in citiesWith the development of machines, production moves from the home to the factoryIndustrial societies use machines to increase productivity which leads to a larger society and a greater division of labor
18 POSTINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES Postindustrial Society- much of the economy is involved in providing information and servicesIn the United States:73% Information & Services25% Production of Goods2% Agriculture
19 CONTRASTING SOCIETIES Mechanical Solidarity- when people share the same values and perform the same tasks, they become united in a common wholeOrganic Solidarity- individuals can no longer provide for all of their own needs
20 GROUPS WITHIN SOCIETYSociety is not only a group; it is a group made up of other smaller groups4 Features of a Group:Consist of 2 or more peopleInteraction among membersMembers have shared expectationsMembers possess some sense of common identityThis group of sailors have a shared identity as part of a military unit
21 WHAT IS A GROUP?Aggregate- when people gather in the same place at the same time, but lack organizationEx: Passengers on a planeSocial Category- classifying people according to a shared trait or a common status.Ex: Students, women, left-handed people, teenagers
22 WHAT IS A GROUP? Dyad- smallest group possible, a group with 2 members Triad- a 3 person groupSmall Group- a group with few enough members that everyone is able to interact face-to-faceFormal Group- structure, goals, and activities are clearly definedInformal Group- no official structure or established rules of conductStudent governments in a school is an example of a formal group
23 TYPES OF GROUPSPrimary Group- small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of timeSecondary Group- group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in natureIn-group- the group that a person belongs to and identifies withOut-group- any group that a person does not belong to or identify withSports fans who support a specific team or player often form in-groups. They view fans of other teams as out-groups.
24 TYPES OF GROUPS CONT.E-Community- people interact with one another regularly on the InternetSocial Network- the web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a person’s interactions with other peopleUnlike groups, social networks do not give rise to a common sense of identity.Knowing the “right” person can mean the difference between getting or not getting a job
25 GROUP FUNCTIONSLeaders- people who influence the attitudes and opinions of othersInstrumental Leaders- task oriented; find specific means that will help the group reach its goalsExpressive Leaders- emotion oriented; find ways to keep the group together and to maintain morale
26 THE STRUCTURE OF FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS Formal Organization- large, complex group that has been established to achieve specific goalsBureaucracy- ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and proceduresRationality- subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculation, measurement, and controlBureaucracies serve important functions such as establishing proper rules and regulations
27 WEBER’S MODEL OF BUREAUCRACIES German sociologist Max Weber developed a theoretical model of bureaucracies that is still widely used todayDivision of LaborRanking of AuthorityEmployment based on formal qualificationsRules and RegulationsSpecific lines of promotion and advancement