Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2, part 3 Human Aspects: Interface Metaphors and Conceptual Models... What is a metaphor? Traditionally, metaphors were used in speech where things."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 2, part 3 Human Aspects: Interface Metaphors and Conceptual Models... What is a metaphor? Traditionally, metaphors were used in speech where things were described with other things that shared some common elements, e.g. calling a ferocious person a tiger.
Metaphors continued Verbal metaphors are often applied to make an abstract concept more understandable. Verbal metaphors = Analogies based on familiar knowledge. Virtual metaphors = combining the system plus familiar domains into one entity. This usually enables to form a concrete system image.
Metaphors continued Where the interface metaphor became important in User Interface Design......when physical objects that can typically be found in offices were implemented as interface metaphors (e.g. paper, folders, filling cabinets, rubbish bins etc.). Examples: Xerox Star User Interface, Mac, Windows etc.
Metaphors continued This analogy to a typical office desk helped a lot of people to better understand how to deal with computers = Desktop metaphor. The mouse (itself a metaphor) also helped people to further control their actions through selecting, dragging etc.
Metaphors continued Advantage: Users were able to develop mental models of the system. These mental models were more like the metaphor world rather than how the system really worked (which is indeed harder to understand), i.e. people developed functional models and were typically unaware of the underlying structural aspects.
Metaphors continued Composite Metaphors......make applications even more powerful by combining the desktop metaphor with other metaphors and possible actions (Menus, windows, scroll bars etc.).
Metaphors continued What does Ubiquitous Computing aim for? To enable the user to naturally, effortlessly and unconsciously interact with the system to accomplish everyday tasks (i.e. that the process gets automated much as bike riding or car driving is automated with experience).
Metaphors continued Ubiquitous Computing continued Many electronic systems are invisible in standard home environments and the control of these systems becomes natural after a while (microwave ovens, the laundry etc.)
Metaphors continued Ubiquitous Computing continued It would be best to have invisible interfaces for some applications (e.g. as soon as speech recognition and selective attention to separate speech from noise work perfectly, there might be many more invisible interfaces)
Metaphors continued Conceptual models...provide frameworks how to design appropriate interface metaphors. They describe various ways in which systems are understood by different people.
Metaphors continued Conceptual models continued 2 important questions: 1. How do users understand the system? 2. How do designers understand the system?
Metaphors continued Conceptual models continued Designers need to understand what concepts users have about how the system works, and designers should ideally help users to develop accurate mental models of the system.
Organisational Aspects Many users work in organisations and therefore it is not only important to consider the individual user, but also to consider the organisations users work in. For instance it is useful to consider what mental models users have about how the computer network works in the entire organisation.
Organisational Aspects continued Attention should be paid to the organisational structure, the working practices and the culture of the organisation. If no attention is paid to these aspects, a new computing system is unlikely to be used in the most effective way or might even be ignored or discarded.
Organisational Aspects continued The question arises how to design and implement computer systems into an organisation so that they are accepted and effectively used. Because organisations sometimes change very rapidly, it is important to constantly adapt to these changes and to evaluate the organisational structures over time.
Organisational Aspects continued How will organisational structures look like in the future. Several scenarios have partly become reality and might be more frequent in the future. The paperless office where information is handled electronically. The automated office where factories are operated by robots. The electronic cottage where people work from home.
Organisational Aspects continued The global village where computing, telecommunications and multimedia enables an interconnected society world-wide.
Organisational Aspects continued Influences of technology on society and organisations have had both positive and negative effects (e.g. tools for enriching and speeding up work, but also deskilling and increased control over workers). It is therefore necessary to also consider ethical aspects. End of Chapter 2 from the study guide