Presentation on theme: "Studying Groups Chapter 2"— Presentation transcript:
1 Studying Groups Chapter 2 How do researchers test their theories and hypotheses about groups and their dynamics?
2 What Are the Three Critical Requirements of a Scientific Study of Groups? Theories that organize knowledge of groupsResearch procedures to test hypotheses about groupsReliable and valid measurement
3 What Methods Do Researchers Use to Measure Individual and Group Processes? Observational measures: observing and recording eventsExample: Whyte’s participant observation of corner gangsOvert vs. covert observationHawthorne effect
4 What Methods Do Researchers Use? Qualitative and Quantitative (structured) measuresBales's Interaction Process Analysis (IPA) classifies behaviors into two categories: task and relationship behaviors
6 Bale’s SYMLOG (Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups) identifies 3 key dimensions: Dominance/SubmissivenessFriendliness/UnfriendlinessAcceptance of Authority/Nonacceptance of Authority.
7 Self-Report MethodsSelf-report measures: group members describe their perceptions and experiencesExample: PersonalityEmotional Intelligence Organizational Climate
8 Personality : Mackinnon (1959) Personality refers to “factors” inside people that explain their behaviorThe sum total of typical ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that makes a person unique.
9 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Myers-Briggs: based on Jungian theory of personalityClassifies individuals along 4 theoretically independent dimensions.
10 MBTI Scales Sensing-Intuition Scale Extroversion-Introversion Scale S: Individual reports observable facts through one or more of the five sensesN: Reports meanings, relationships and/or possibilities that have been worked out beyond the reach of the conscious mindExtroversion-Introversion ScaleE: Oriented primarily toward the outer world; focus on people and objectsI: Oriented primarily toward the inner world; focus on concepts and ideas
11 MBTI Scales Thinking-Feeling Scale T: Judgment is impersonally based on logical consequencesF: Judgment is primarily based on personal or social valuesPerception-Judging ScaleP: Preference for using a perceptive process for dealing with the outer worldJ: Preference for using a judgment process for dealing with the outer world
12 What Is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional intelligence involves the “abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth”
19 Assessment MethodsAny measure, to be scientifically useful, must have reliability and validity.
20 Would you keep using these measurement tools? ReliabilityReliability is synonymous with consistency. It is the degree to which test scores for a an individual test taker or group of test takers are consistent over repeated applications.No psychological test is completely consistent, however, a measurement that is unreliable is worthless.For ExampleA student receives a score of 100 on one intelligence tests and114 in another or imagine that every time you stepped on ascale it showed a different weight.Would you keep using these measurement tools?The consistency of test scores is critically important in determining whether a test can provide good measurement.
21 Test-retest Reliability Test-retest reliability is usually measured by computing the correlation coefficient between scores of two administrations.
22 Validity Refers to measuring what we intend to measure. If math and vocabulary truly represent intelligence then a math and vocabulary test might be said to have high validity when used as a measure of intelligence.
23 Predictive ValidityThe extent to which scores on the scale are related to, and predictive of, some future outcome that is of practical utility.e.g., If higher scores on the SAT are positively correlated withhigher G.P.A.’s and visa versa, then the SAT is said tohave predictive validity.The Predictive Validity of the SAT is mildly supported by the relation of that scale with performance in graduate school.
24 What Are the Key Characteristics & Differences Between Case, Experimental, & Correlational Studies of Group Processes?Case StudyExample: Groupthink groups (Janis)Bona fide groupsExperimentsKey featuresmanipulate independent variablemeasure dependent variablecontrol other variablesExample: Lewin, Lippitt, & White’s study of leadershipStrength: Test cause-effect relationships
25 Characteristics and Differences (cont’d) Case studies: atypical of most groups, subjective, stimulate theoryExperiments: too artificial, not “real” groups, but clearest test of cause and effect.Correlational studies: limited information about causality but precise estimates of the strength of relationships, less artificial, fewer ethical concernsMulti-level approaches are uniquely informative
26 What Theoretical Perspectives Guide Researchers’ Studies of Groups? Motivational models: Lewin's level-of-aspiration theoryBehavioral approaches: Thibaut and Kelley's social exchange theorySystems theory: Input-process-output models of performanceCognitive theories: Berger's expectation-states theoryBiological perspectives: Evolutionary psychology (or sociobiology)