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Studying Groups Chapter 2

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1 Studying Groups Chapter 2
How do researchers test their theories and hypotheses about groups and their dynamics?

2 What Are the Three Critical Requirements of a Scientific Study of Groups?
Theories that organize knowledge of groups Research procedures to test hypotheses about groups Reliable and valid measurement

3 What Methods Do Researchers Use to Measure Individual and Group Processes?
Observational measures: observing and recording events Example: Whyte’s participant observation of corner gangs Overt vs. covert observation Hawthorne effect

4 What Methods Do Researchers Use?
Qualitative and Quantitative (structured) measures Bales's Interaction Process Analysis (IPA) classifies behaviors into two categories: task and relationship behaviors


6 Bale’s SYMLOG (Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups) identifies 3 key dimensions:
Dominance/Submissiveness Friendliness/Unfriendliness Acceptance of Authority/Nonacceptance of Authority.

7 Self-Report Methods Self-report measures: group members describe their perceptions and experiences Example: Personality Emotional Intelligence Organizational Climate

8 Personality : Mackinnon (1959)
Personality refers to “factors” inside people that explain their behavior The sum total of typical ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that makes a person unique.

9 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Myers-Briggs: based on Jungian theory of personality Classifies individuals along 4 theoretically independent dimensions.

10 MBTI Scales Sensing-Intuition Scale Extroversion-Introversion Scale
S: Individual reports observable facts through one or more of the five senses N: Reports meanings, relationships and/or possibilities that have been worked out beyond the reach of the conscious mind Extroversion-Introversion Scale E: Oriented primarily toward the outer world; focus on people and objects I: Oriented primarily toward the inner world; focus on concepts and ideas

11 MBTI Scales Thinking-Feeling Scale
T: Judgment is impersonally based on logical consequences F: Judgment is primarily based on personal or social values Perception-Judging Scale P: Preference for using a perceptive process for dealing with the outer world J: Preference for using a judgment process for dealing with the outer world

12 What Is Emotional Intelligence?
Emotional intelligence involves the “abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth”

13 BarOn EQ-i Factors Intra-Personal Inter-Personal Adaptability
Emotional Self-Awareness Assertiveness Self-Regard Self-Actualization Independence Inter-Personal Interpersonal Relationship Empathy Social Responsibility Adaptability Problem Solving Flexibility Reality Testing Stress Management Stress Tolerance Impulse Control General Mood Optimism Happiness

14 BarOn EQ-i Sample Test Items: I have good relations with others
I’m fun to be with I like helping people Rating Scale: 1 = Very Seldom or Not True of me 5 = Very Often True of Me or True of Me

15 Disadvantage of Self-Report Tests
Social Desirability Faking “Good” Faking “Bad” Random Responding

16 Sociometry A research technique that graphically summarizes patterns of intermember relations. Sociometric structures: - stars - unpopulars - isolates - positives - negatives - pairs - clusters - fringers



19 Assessment Methods Any measure, to be scientifically useful, must have reliability and validity.

20 Would you keep using these measurement tools?
Reliability Reliability is synonymous with consistency. It is the degree to which test scores for a an individual test taker or group of test takers are consistent over repeated applications. No psychological test is completely consistent, however, a measurement that is unreliable is worthless. For Example A student receives a score of 100 on one intelligence tests and 114 in another or imagine that every time you stepped on a scale it showed a different weight. Would you keep using these measurement tools? The consistency of test scores is critically important in determining whether a test can provide good measurement.

21 Test-retest Reliability
Test-retest reliability is usually measured by computing the correlation coefficient between scores of two administrations.

22 Validity Refers to measuring what we intend to measure.
If math and vocabulary truly represent intelligence then a math and vocabulary test might be said to have high validity when used as a measure of intelligence.

23 Predictive Validity The extent to which scores on the scale are related to, and predictive of, some future outcome that is of practical utility. e.g., If higher scores on the SAT are positively correlated with higher G.P.A.’s and visa versa, then the SAT is said to have predictive validity. The Predictive Validity of the SAT is mildly supported by the relation of that scale with performance in graduate school.

24 What Are the Key Characteristics & Differences Between Case, Experimental, & Correlational Studies of Group Processes? Case Study Example: Groupthink groups (Janis) Bona fide groups Experiments Key features manipulate independent variable measure dependent variable control other variables Example: Lewin, Lippitt, & White’s study of leadership Strength: Test cause-effect relationships

25 Characteristics and Differences (cont’d)
Case studies: atypical of most groups, subjective, stimulate theory Experiments: too artificial, not “real” groups, but clearest test of cause and effect. Correlational studies: limited information about causality but precise estimates of the strength of relationships, less artificial, fewer ethical concerns Multi-level approaches are uniquely informative

26 What Theoretical Perspectives Guide Researchers’ Studies of Groups?
Motivational models: Lewin's level-of-aspiration theory Behavioral approaches: Thibaut and Kelley's social exchange theory Systems theory: Input-process-output models of performance Cognitive theories: Berger's expectation-states theory Biological perspectives: Evolutionary psychology (or sociobiology)

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