Presentation on theme: "Preventing Birth Defects Caused By Congenital Infection Development of International Collaboration in Infectious Disease Research State Research Center."— Presentation transcript:
Preventing Birth Defects Caused By Congenital Infection Development of International Collaboration in Infectious Disease Research State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR 8-10 September 2004
The Global Toll of Birth Defects Each year, an estimated 7.7 million children worldwide are born with serious genetic birth defects that cause death or lifelong disability for the individual and hardship for entire families Approximately 3.7 million of these infants (>48%) will die before the age of five years The majority of the rest will suffer life-long disability
Birth Defects Risk Factors Congenital Infections Rubella (Congenital rubella syndrome) 110,000 cases worldwide Cytomegalovirus (CMV) 1/100 live births Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) 1/62,500 live births Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 1/435 live births Human Parvovirus (HPV) B19 1/3333 live births
Congenital Rubella Syndrome Complications: Eye defects, hearing loss, heart defects, mental retardation and movement disorders Prevalence: 110,000 births per year Prevention: Immunization, with the goal of rubella immunity at least 28 days before conception
Cytomegalovirus Complications: Neurological, growth and developmental problems; sight and hearing problems; and dental abnormalities Incidence of Infection in Newborns: 1/100 live births Prevention: Hand washing, good hygiene. Avoidance of exposure to CMV+ toddlers. Immunization?
Varicella-Zoster Virus Complications: Congenital varicella syndrome, leading to defects of muscle and bone, malformed and paralyzed limbs, a smaller-than-normal head, blindness, seizures and mental retardation Incidence of Infection in Newborns: 1/62,500 live births Prevention: Immunization
Herpes Simplex Virus Complications: Isolated CNS disease; disseminated disease with CNS involvement; or isolated skin, eye, or mouth infection Incidence of Infection in Newborns: 1/435 live births Prevention: Safe sexual practices to avoid exposure to herpes simplex virus. Immunization?
Human Parvovirus B19 Complications: Hemolytic anemia, heart failure and fetal death; suspected but not proven association with birth defects Incidence of Infection in Newborns: 1/3333 live births Prevention: Avoid exposure to children with fifth disease (must be before appearance of disease or at least rash). Immunization?