1 Emotions—Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB Emotions are critical factor in employee behavior.The “myth of rationality”Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations.Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency.
2 Affect A broad range of emotions that people experience What Are Emotions?Affect A broad range of emotions that people experienceEmotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or somethingMoods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus
4 Aspects of Emotions Biology of Emotions Intensity of Emotions Originate in brain’s limbic systemIntensity of EmotionsPersonalityJob requirementsFrequency and Duration of EmotionsHow often emotions are exhibitedHow long emotions are displayedFunctions of EmotionsCritical for rational thinkingMotivate people
6 Sources of Emotions and Moods PersonalityDay and Time of the WeekNOT WeatherStressSocial ActivitiesSleepExerciseAgeGender
7 Positive Moods are Highest At the End of the WeekIn the Middle Part of the DayNegative Moods are HighestAt the Beginning of the WeekAnd show little variation throughout the day
8 Gender and Emotions Women Men Can show greater emotional expression Experience emotions more intenselyDisplay emotions more frequentlyAre more comfortable in expressing emotionsAre better at reading others’ emotionsMenBelieve that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male imageAre innately less able to read and to identify with others’ emotionsHave less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions
9 External Constraints on Emotions Organizational InfluencesCultural InfluencesIndividual Emotions
10 Emotional LaborA situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.Emotional dissonance—Inconsistencies between the emotions we feel and the emotions we project.
11 Felt vs. Displayed Emotions Felt EmotionsAn individual’s actual emotionsDisplayed EmotionsEmotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job
12 Note: Higher emotional labor equals more highly paid jobs (with high cognitive requirements) Internals (Internal locus of control) Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
13 Affective Events Theory (AET) Work events trigger positive and negative emotional reactionsPersonality and mood determine the intensity of the emotional response.Emotions can influence a broad range of work performance and job satisfaction variables.Implications of the theory ACTIndividual response reflects emotions and mood cycles.Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction.Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction and performance.Both negative and positive emotions can distract workers and reduce job performance.
14 Affective Events Theory (AET) Source: Based on N.M. Ashkanasy and C.S. Daus, “Emotion in the Workplace: The New Challenge for Managers,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, p. 77.E X H I B I T 8–6
15 Emotional Intelligence Self-awareness = Know how you feelSelf-management = Manage your emotions and impulsesSelf-motivation = Can motivate yourself and persistEmpathy = Sense and understand what others feelSocial Skills = Can handle the emotions of othersResearch Findings: Characterize high performers, high EI scores, not high IQ scores.
16 OB Applications of Emotions and Moods Emotions and SelectionEmotions affect employee effectiveness.Decision MakingEmotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations.CreativityPositive mood increases creativity.MotivationEmotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked.LeadershipEmotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.
17 OB Applications . . . (cont’d) Interpersonal ConflictConflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined.NegotiationEmotions can impair negotiations.Customer ServicesEmotions affect service quality delivered to customers which, in turn, affects customer relationships.Job AttitudesCan carry over to homeDeviant Workplace BehaviorsNegative emotions lead to employee deviance (actions that violate norms and threaten the organization).
18 Chapter Check-up: Emotions and Moods Lucy has a high need for achievement and likes to come to work and focus on her job only. If you were Lucy’s manager, how could you get her to feel more emotion at work? Would you want her to? Why or why not? Discuss with a classmate.
19 Chapter Check-up: Emotions and Moods Discuss with your neighbor how low positive affect is the same or different as high negative affect.
20 Chapter Check-up: Emotions and Moods Roberto comes to class and sits quietly looking content and relaxed. The teacher is guessing that Roberto is:Low on negative affectHigh on positive affectHigh on negative affectLow on positive affectDiscuss with a neighbor why Roberto, who is seemingly happy but calm, isn’t just low on positive affect.
21 Chapter Check-up: Emotions and Moods Do you think there could be emotional and mood implications for telecommuting? If yes, how so? Discuss with a classmate.Hint: Consider this woman!Why might she NOT always feel this way?