Presentation on theme: "ARTstor Digital Preservation Shared Challenges, Gaps, and Needs."— Presentation transcript:
ARTstor Digital Preservation Shared Challenges, Gaps, and Needs
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 2 Shared Challenges, Gaps, and Needs Reflections on the anniversary of the Report of the CLIR/RLG Task Force on Digital Archiving The grand challenges of Digital Preservation Intellectual property and the relation between preservation and access A network of trusted institutions and the question of certification The interoperability gap Business models and models of cooperation
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 3 The Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information May 1st was the tenth anniversary of the report Full disclosure The test of time: Key findings Recommendations
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 4 Key findings of the Task Force The first line of defense rests with the creators, providers and owners of digital information. Long-term preservation requires a deep infrastructure capable of supporting a distributed system of digital archives. A critical component of the digital archiving infrastructure is the existence of a sufficient number of trusted organizations A process of certification for digital archives is needed to create an overall climate of trust about the prospects of preserving digital information. Certified digital archives must have the right and duty to exercise an aggressive rescue function as a fail-safe mechanism for preserving valuable digital information that is in jeopardy of destruction, neglect or abandonment by its current custodian.
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 5 Task Force Recommendations (1) Pilot projects Preserve objects of the early digital age Identify and address economic and legal barriers Applications of technologies and services (emulation, IP transactions, object authentication mechanisms
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 6 Task Force Recommendations (2) Support structures Preservation-friendly national policies (network pricing, security, tax incentives and accounting structures) Legal foundations for effective fail-safe archives Community- and discipline-based archives Standards, criteria, and mechanisms for certification Points of contact for international cooperation
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 7 Task Force Recommendations (3) Best practice case studies Facilitating archiving at creation Massive storage Metadata standards Migration paths
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 8 Preservation state of the art From prayers … James Gleick reported in The New York Times (The Digital Attic: An Archive of Everything, 12 April 1998) that "the Daiho Temple of Rinzai Zen Buddhism held a memorial service for lost information in Kyoto and online." After the effort of transforming all this knowledge into electronic information has been completed, is it enough then to say that we are finished?... There are many 'living' documents and softwares that are thoughtlessly discarded or erased without even a second thought. It is this thoughtlessness that has drawn the concern and attention of Head Priest Shokyu Ishiko. Head Priest Ishiko hopes that through holding an "Information Service" and by teaching the words of Buddha, that this 'information void' will cease to exist (http://www.thezen.or.jp/jomoh/kuyo.html). Shokyu Ishikohttp://www.thezen.or.jp/jomoh/kuyo.html). We need to help them! … To this workshop
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 9 The grand challenges of Digital Preservation Intellectual property and the relation between preservation and access A network of trusted institutions and the question of certification The interoperability gap Business models and models of cooperation
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 10 Intellectual property Common complaint: it is very difficult to preserve intellectual property because copyright law limits copying for such purposes. The issue is especially complicated because of the popular formula preservation is access This equation arose mainly to mobilize efforts to preserve out-of- copyright brittle books. But if preservation is a backdoor for redistribution of at-risk in- copyright materials then, rights-holders would resist
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 11 An aggressive rescue function The Task Force subcommittee addressing the IP topic had high aspirations for detailed recommendations, but generated little consensus and so dealt with intellectual property in a limited way. It focused on a simple call for the law, and particularly Section 108 of the copyright law, to allow for an aggressive rescue function. The Task Force formulation: No distributed system of digital archives will afford effective protection of electronic information unless it provides for a powerful rescue function allowing one agency, acting in the long-term public interest of protecting the cultural record, to override anothers neglect of or active interest in abandoning or destroying parts of that record. Neglect and willful abandonment and destruction are prominent attributes of the digital environment
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 12 Neglect and willful abandonment or destruction The loss of the Task Force correspondence archives and the preservation prayer. The judgments against Morgan Stanley for failing to preserve . Publishers appear to be highly vulnerable to legal demands, editorial second-guessing, and other activities that result in the removal of materials from their own archives. The Elsevier Vanishing act was documented on the LIBLICENSE listserv in 2004 Such acts produce a Swiss cheese effect in the cultural record Jim ODonnell: The Vanishing Act discussion is disturbing, because it is the tip of the iceberg, I think: if for fairly transient reasons, publishers will pull articles, when might not publishers prove unreliable for other reasons?
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 13 Solutions? Jane Ginsburg and June Besek are engaged in a Mellon-funded study of legal strategies for protecting archives that are preserving parts of the cultural record from being subject to takedown demands Emergence of discussion of light versus dark archives, where dark archives restrict archives Will restricted archives attract investment? The experience of LOCKSS and especially Portico is relevant The Portico business model had to be changed to exclude deep investment in access, because publishers would not contribute and the access investment proved too expensive for libraries The Section 108 Study Group recently took public comments on its version of the aggressive rescue function: a preservation-only exception to the copyright law
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 14 Preservation-only exception An exception would allow copying of at risk materials by qualified institutions from which access would be severely restricted Access would be articulated in the definition of trigger conditions allowing varying types of access depending on conditions such as: Monitoring by staff and auditors Need for use by qualified researchers Creating a replacement copy, if the work is no longer available on the market at a fair price If the work is abandoned or orphaned If permission is given When copyright expires
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 15 Conclusion on IP issues There are no easy answers Although preservation may not equal access, the triggers suggest that there is a relationship between preservation and access, and that it is subtle and nuanced. In the preservation arena, IP may need to be addressed by attention to nuance.
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 16 The grand challenges of Digital Preservation Intellectual property and the relation between preservation and access A network of trusted institutions and the question of certification The interoperability gap Business models and models of cooperation
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 17 A network of trusted institutions The Task Force suggested that: Repositories claiming to serve an archival function must be able to prove that they are who they say they are by meeting or exceeding the standards and criteria of an independently-administered program for archival certification. Certification has attracted considerable attention. But trust is the central issue.
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 18 The Need for Trust Trust is important mainly in its absence: When there is a lack of confidence When there are multiple interests in an object or activity and one or more parties lack control When there is the potential for those in control to cause loss or harm, either deliberately or inadvertently In the preservation context, there is a need for trust because: There is uncertainty about how to preserve information in a digital environment Those interested in preserving the scientific and cultural record do not control it The potential for loss is great and growing
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 19 Preservation features that build trust Technical ability: The repository must be able to maintain the authenticity and integrity of the information The information must demonstrably be what it purports to be. Organizational design A commitment to the preservation mission, Protections and controls against loss Well-defined preservation services
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 20 A significant body of work on trust in archives RLG/OCLC Working Group on Digital Archive Attributes (2002) RLG-NARA Task Force on Digital Repository Certification (2005) Center for Research Libraries is testing the feasibility of a certification process against a variety of existing or emerging archives Meanwhile: The National Science Board report on Long-Lived Data Collections (2005) observed layers of responsibility (local, group, national) within scientific communities with the need for oversight growing as the collections are more important to each community The Digital Preservation Coalition study, Mind the gap: Assessing digital preservation needs in the UK (2006) has generalized the point to suggest that different communities have different needs for regulation and certification of preservation activity.
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 21 Enhancing trust through the law? Preservation repositories certainly need to be protected against takedown orders Specific, highly regulated industries might require preservation certification as a condition of doing business In general, a consensus is emerging thatcertification should be community-driven rather than mandated centrally for all repositories because it would be too difficult and cumbersome to administer as a unified process across communities with differing requirements and needs Open questions: Where are the communities of common interest? How do they encourage openness and transparency in the interest of establishing trust? What standards need to be enforced? How general are these standards across communities? When is it in the self-interest of preservation agents to submit to certification and audit processes?
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 22 Open questions Where are the communities of common interest? How do they encourage openness and transparency in the interest of establishing trust? What standards need to be enforced? How general are these standards across communities? When is it in the self-interest of preservation agents to submit to certification and audit processes?
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 23 The grand challenges of Digital Preservation Intellectual property and the relation between preservation and access A network of trusted institutions and the question of certification The interoperability gap Business models and models of cooperation
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 24 The interoperability gap There is room for extensive cooperation among archives, including various kinds of divisions of labor for more efficient operations An example: preservation requires bulk transfer of content across and among repositories What standards and services are needed? PREMIS data model and data dictionary Format registries Need for practical experiments and testing NDIIPP Archive Ingest and Handling Test Preliminary results of the New York workshop on Augmenting Interoperability across Scholarly Repositories
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 25 Augmenting Interoperability Focus on complex digital objects Key service functions need to be represented in repository interfaces Get/Obtain/Harvest Put, or request for submission Notion of surrogate as a representation of the complex object: Does it reference the object or contain it? Generalized data model: Unique identifier (need standard ways to locate repository) Other features: lineage or provenance Need for substantial inter-repository experiments in multiple domains (e.g. chemistry; museums; archaeology; preservation) to formulate and test the general data model.
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 26 The grand challenges of Digital Preservation Intellectual property and the relation between preservation and access A network of trusted institutions and the question of certification The interoperability gap Business models and models of cooperation
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 27 Business models Preservation depends on commitment AND sustained resources How to generate sustained resources? Preservation is a public good and is subject to free-riding problems Government tax and funding addresses the problem, but is it enough? Libraries, archives, and museums may be able to take responsibility as part of their mission, but economies of scale is an issue Service bureaus solutions work at scale but may be operating in special classes of enterprise such as those in a two-sided market
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 28 Two-sided markets Credit cards are a classic case How to crack the chicken-egg problem: customers wont use the card if stores dont accept it; stores wont accept the card if there arent enough customers The Visa solution: charge the merchant; the AMEX prestige solution: charge both LOCKSS and Portico both have struggled with this problem of publisher and library participation Portico required several rounds of intensive negotiations and marketing analyses on both sides Abandoned initial interest in access provisions and lowered costs in what might be characterized as an insurance model Are other business models appropriate in other arenas?
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 29 Resources depend on interaction with commercial entities Commercial versus public and not-for-profit solutions? Commercial interests in preservation are powerful if the IP is profitable Government funding depends on competition in a political process Not-for-profit missions may be divided; in libraries, for example between preservation and access There need to be imaginative approaches to developing shared vision and mutual support across sectors Learn and draw from commercial preservation expertise in film, sound recording, pharmaceutical, and other industries Commercial uses of preservation archives: indexing; content from one publisher to another; addressing perpetual access claims More imagination needed?
ARTstor DJW, 3/2/05: 30 Next steps The grand challenges of Digital Preservation Intellectual property and the relation between preservation and access A network of trusted institutions and the question of certification The interoperability gap Business models and models of cooperation These are some suggested areas of priority