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Topic 2 - Estimating the changing extent of gender discrimination Professor Christine Greenhalgh P Cahuc and A Zylberberg (2004) Labor Economics, Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Topic 2 - Estimating the changing extent of gender discrimination Professor Christine Greenhalgh P Cahuc and A Zylberberg (2004) Labor Economics, Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topic 2 - Estimating the changing extent of gender discrimination Professor Christine Greenhalgh P Cahuc and A Zylberberg (2004) Labor Economics, Chapter 5 Compensating Wage Differentials and Discrimination, part 4. A Manning (2003) Monopsony in Motion, Chapter 7: Gender Discrimination in Labor Markets. A Manning and J Swaffield (2008), The gender gap in early-career wage growth, The Economic Journal Vol. 118 No. 530 July. The Economic Journal (2008) Vol. 118 No. 526 February, Feature: Womens Part-Time Work. This includes five articles examining several aspects of the topic. See especially the two articles by M Gregory and S Connolly and one by Manning and Petrongolo.

2 Gross pay gaps in Europe Source The Guardian 16 March 2009

3 Wage Differentials – Fair and Unfair Cahuc and Zylberberg outline compensating differentials arising under perfect competition Describe this as Hedonic Theory of Wages In this case all differentials are fair rates Monopsony can be serious barrier to operation of perfect competition – here differentials are not perfectly related to marginal productivity But Manning in Monopsony in Motion was unable to find dramatic differences in M and F labour supply elasticities to firms Reason – two offsetting effects – F less likely search widely among employers, but F more likely to quit into non-participation

4 Discrimination - Which gender pay gap to look at? Many women take on the role of carers for children, disabled and elderly Expect these women to have gaps in employment and/or to work part-time Anticipation of events such as family formation can cause women to make –lower investments in human capital and –choices of occupations compatible with caring Differences in current gross hourly earnings reflect these choices

5 Gender differences in human capital investment Experience accumulation is lower On-the-job training may be below men Pre- entry differences in quantity and type of formal education Choice of first job indicative of future career Survey evidence of ambition/attitudes to work

6 M & F employment rates by age in 1979 & 2002 Source: see next slide

7 Gender wage gaps by age and education 2002 Source: Previous and this slide: Data from UK LFS, as shown in H Robinson Ch 15 of The Labour Market Under New Labour, eds. Dickens, Gregg, Wadsworth 2003

8 Gender segregation by Occupn Share in F(M) employment % Female within Occupn. Managers10 (18)31 Professionals10 (12)43 Assoc. Prof.13 (13)47 Administrative24 (5)81 Skilled trades2 (20)9 Personal service13 (2)86 Sales12 (4)72 Processing3 (13)17 Elementary12 (12)47

9 Wage decomposition techniques Estimating wage equations (hedonic) ln w = xβ + eα + ε w is hourly wage x is vector of personal characteristics e is vector of characteristics of job ε is random error β vector of coefficients on personal variables α is vector of coefficients on job variables

10 The Blinder-Oaxaca Method of Estimating Discrimination Estimate separate wage equations for males M and females F Simplify notation to include both x and e variables in X list ln w = X β + ε Gap between male and female wages is due to differences in characteristics X Plus differences in rewards for given X ln w M – ln w F = (X M – X F ) β M + X F (β M - β F ) Second element is estimate of discrimination D

11 Measurement problems and alternative estimators In wage regressions if have omitted characteristics such as motivation and commitment to career –> this would overstate D If fewer very low paid women chose to work then dont observe those with lowest wage offers –> this would understate D Alternative direct estimators hard to find but Goldin and Rouse orchestra auditions is a classic controlled experiment Introduction of blind auditions in 1970s & 80s for major US symphony orchestras led to more women being hired

12 Early evidence for the UK Source Greenhalgh EJ Vol Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition - Unexplained differentials 1971 Married to single men 14% Single men to single women24% Single women to married women3% Unexplained differentials 1975 Married to single men 10% Single men to single women10% Single women to married women12%

13 Recent study of labour force entrants in 1990s Manning and Swaffield EJ 2008 article Uses BHPS data (large representative dataset) Gender pay gap on entry is zero – equality at the start 10 years later gender pay gap has emerged during early careers Gap continues to widen reaching a maximum at c. age 40 Later birth cohorts show smaller gaps than earlier ones but still significant

14 How big is early career gap? Early career = up to 10 years in labour force Manning and Swaffield characterise wage gap after ten years as 25 log points Means that log ratio male to female wages is 0.25 Exponentiating gives the actual ratio as 1.28 So mens wages have grown faster to reach level 28% above females by ten years after labour market entry

15 What explains this early career gap? Three broad factors: Human capital differences Some women intermit or work part-time Do men also get more training? Job-shopping Do men change jobs to find right niche? Psychological differences Are men more ambitious?

16 Decomposition Results (in log points) Gap after ten years25 Human capital 11 Work experience 6.5 Training 4.5 Job shopping 1.5 Psychology 4.5 Unexplained 8

17 Explaining gender differences in skills acquisition Gender gap in training is driven by the pattern among the less skilled More early school leaver men than women enter apprenticeships Among graduates women get more training than men Choices of entry occupations do differ but this is not the deciding factor for differences in wage growth (provided get training)

18 Changing attitudes to work Source Fortin in OXREP 2005 Gender Birth date Women Women Post 1965 Men Men Post 1965 Scarce jobs men first Housewife fulfilling Good pay important Useful job to society Ideal no. children Actual no. children

19 The Work-Life Balancing Act Gregory & Connolly EJ Feb 2008 title piece The price of reconciliation… Good News –More women in further and higher education –Labour force attachment is strengthening –Moving into an expanding range of occupations Bad News –Pay gap between Full- and Part-time women widening steadily –Part-time jobs polarised in low-paid occupations –Legislation does not address this inequality

20 The Part-Time Pay Penalty Manning and Petrongolo EJ Feb2008 PTPP was 14% in 1975 rising to 28% in 1995 after which no clear trend Estimating the factors accounting for this gap Can explain majority of gap using characteristics of person and of their job Occupation is by far the biggest – explains 70% In rank order other characteristics are: Education, Industry, Employer size and Region Within occupations the part time pay penalty is quite small

21 Moving Down – Part-Time Work and Occupational Change Connolly and Gregory analyse women moving from FT to PT working Look at average qualification level by occupation and rank jobs by skill level Between 14% and 25% of women moving to PT work move to a lower skill occupation Worst affected are former managers Least affected are those staying with same employer Downgrading constitutes a hidden brain drain

22 Policy Options Minimum Wages: Since 1999 when UK MW was introduced can see small effects on wages of both FT and PT women Relative gain for PT women very small Equal Treatment: Legislation in 2000 ensures PT cannot be treated less favourably than FT Not very effective because major gap is across occupations not within

23 More Policy Options Rights to Flexible Working: From 2003 legislation requires employers to consider seriously requests to change hours Applies only to parents of children aged < 6 Can refuse; some evidence higher paid women get more refusals Employer Reviews of Equal Pay Government has encouraged employers to conduct reviews within organisations So far this is voluntary

24 Policy movement in the recession? Article in The Guardian 16 March 2009:Equal pay is a step too far in recession, says rights body heading Equalities and Human Rights Commission says equal pay reviews should not be forced on employers in recession, keep voluntary TUCs equality department begs to differ, saying pay audits are a crucial part of eliminating the pay gap Unison (large public sector trade union) claims voluntary approach has not worked

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