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1 Economics Students Approaches to Learning in Different Assessment Regimes Economics Students Approaches to Learning in Different Assessment Regimes Tommy Tang & Tim Robinson Queensland University of Technology, Australia Paper presented at the Third International Conference in Developments in Economics and Business Education, Cambridge, UK 1-2 Sept 2005.

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2 Outline 1.Introduction Input-output approach and its limitations Biggs 3-P Model of Learning 2.The study 3.Findings & Discussions 4. Conclusion

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3 Introduction Input-output Approach Q = f(X 1, X 2, X 3, … ) whereQ = Learning output (marks) X 1 = Aptitude X 2 = Age X 3 = Parental occupation … Limitations

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4 Biggs 3-P Model of Learning Student characteristics Teaching context Learning approach Learning outcome Feedback PresageProcess Product (Biggs 1989, modified)

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5 An econometric approach which assesses the impact of easily measurable independent variables on a single dependent variable may simply miss important responses to teaching change. (Shanahan et al., 1997) An econometric approach which assesses the impact of easily measurable independent variables on a single dependent variable may simply miss important responses to teaching change. (Shanahan et al., 1997)

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6 Research Objective: Construct instruments to investigate students perceptions of assessment, and learning strategies for assessment Construction of Instrument: SPQ (Biggs), ASI (Entwistle & Ramsden), MSLQ (Pintrich et al), LAQ (Thomas) Focus groups Student surveys The Study

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7 Subjects: Students in: Economics 1 Economics 2 Business cycles & economic growth Sample size Week 1: n = 1146 Week 2: n = 648

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8 Findings & Discussions

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9 Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) MCQ Essay Assignment Essay Exam (KMO=0.747) (KMO = 0.805) (KMO = 0.793) HighLow RW2_MCQ.709 CRIT_MCQ.603 DU2_MCQ.560 INTG_MCQ.528 RHI_MCQ.483 RW1_MCQ.461 FDBK_MCQ.387 RLOW_MCQ.333.311 MEM3_MCQ.792 MEM1_MCQ.685 MEM2_MCQ.570 MEM4_MCQ.231.306 DU1_MCQ.222 HighLow RW2_ASS.756 DU2_ASS.649 INTG_ASS.576 CRIT_ASS.568 RW1_ASS.543 FDBK_ASS.525 RHI_ASS.501 RLOW_ASS.379.341 MEM3_ASS.759 MEM1_ASS.641 MEM2_ASS.515 MEM4_ASS.261.357 DU1_ASS HighLow RW2_EX.657 DU2_EX.586 CRIT_EX.545 RW1_EX.513 INTG_EX.497 FDBK_EX.494 RHI_EX.417.322 MEM3_EX.711 MEM2_EX.706 MEM1_EX.587 RLOW_EX.288.548 MEM4_EX.236.347 DU1_EX Perceptions of Assessment

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10 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) The final model MCQEssayExam 2 /df 2.1162.4242.458 CFI0.9630.9640.961 RMSEA0.0440.0470.048

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11 Learning Strategies for Assessment UnderstandingReproducingIntegration Rote- memorising U6.529 R6.509 U3.496 U1.463 U2.400 U4.383 S10.518 S6.473 S11.456 S7.453 S8.406 U5.245.318 -.295 R2.726 R1.716 R5.623 R4.448 R3.239 S4.683 S3.594 S2.225.497 S1.434 KMO = 0.835 EFA

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12 CFA ( 2 /df = 2.22, CFI = 0.949 and RMSEA = 0.034) The final model

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13 CFA – 2 nd order factor model ( 2 /df = 2.610, CFI = 0.938, RMSEA = 0.038 )

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14 Assessment type Level of intellectual skill NMean Std. dev. MCQ LOW5783.8980.7953 HIGH5653.0630.6495 Essay Exam LOW6133.7360.7932 HIGH6003.5910.5613 Essay Assignment LOW6412.6010.8137 HIGH6303.8960.6012 Perceptions of Assessment

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15 Approaches Assessment type NMeanStd. Dev. Understanding MCQ5703.4690.6489 Essay Assignm6283.5130.6194 Essay Exam6043.6240.5937 Integrating MCQ5663.5630.7558 Essay Assignm6243.7210.7185 Essay Exam5983.7090.7257 Reproducing MCQ5703.6400.6921 Essay Assignm6303.2580.7144 Essay Exam6033.5420.7073 Rote- memorising MCQ5723.3180.7802 Essay Assignm6283.0710.8059 Essay Exam6033.2630.7742 Learning Approaches for Assessment

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16 LOW_mcqLOW_exLOW_assHIGH_mcqHIGH_exHIGH_ass LOW_mcq 1 (578) LOW_ex.472** 1 (560)(613) LOW_ass.105*.178** 1 (576)(613)(641) HIGH_mcq -.063-.068.224**1 (563)(546)(562)(565) HIGH_ex.107*.050.089*.329** 1 (546)(599) (543)(600) HIGH_ass.151**.166**-.043.093*.499** 1 (564)(601)(628)(562)(599)(630) ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Stability of Perceptions

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17 ApproachAssessment Pre-course factors Conclusion Implication for Future Research (Stability)

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