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1 Inna Pomorina Using Problem-based Learning

2 Tell me and I will forget Show me and I will remember Involve me and I will understand Step back and I will act (Chinese proverb)

3 The principal idea behind PBL is... that the starting point for learning should be a problem, a query, or a puzzle that the learner wishes to solve. (Boud, 1985:13)

4 What are the Common Features of PBL? Uses problems as a stimulus and focus for student activity The curriculum is centred on key problems which occur in practice Starts with the problem and not with disciplinary knowledge Students acquire knowledge and skills Various learning resources available

5 I've taught Snoopy to whistle I can't hear him whistle I said that I'd taught him, not that he'd learned

6 PBL: the process Students work in small groups with or without tutor They are presented with a problem They organise ideas and previous knowledge Students pose questions, defining what they know and dont know They assign responsibility for questions They discuss resources They reconvene, explore newly learned information, refine questions.

7 Problem-solving process in tutorials 1. Starting point How do the group interpret the starting point Clarify terms and concepts not readily available 2. Brainstorming Free associations concerning the starting point 3. a) Systematise Organise connections and categories into problem areas b) Scrutinise & evaluate Scrutinise and evaluate knowledge of the group in relation to the problem areas 4. Define problems Define one or more problems/questions 5. Learning needs Formulate learning needs in relation to the problem(s) chosen to study 7. Consider and elucidate theory/facts Use the newly acquired information and knowledge to elucidate the problem(s)formed more deeply (general level) 6. Self study Collect knowledge in relation 8. Apply knowledge Apply the acquired knowledge to the situation presented in the starting point Evaluation Problem-solving Self-directed learning The group-work

8 Example of PBL task: Keep it Rolling If money grew on trees, we would all be rich. (English saying) Inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon (Milton Friedman) Russia has experienced several outbursts of hyperinflation in the 90s. In Serbia, during the years of , money supply more than doubled every 2 or 3 months, because the government was using the printing press to finance its war expenditures

9 Facilitators role Though Friedman may overdo it a little bit, his quote does have a considerable intuitive appeal. How to formalise that? –Have to clarify what market we are talking about –Study the determinants of supply and demand on that market and the nature of equilibrating mechanism –One of the conclusions will be that an expected increase in the future money supply already causes inflation today

10 Characteristics of PBL assessment An assessment system based on problems The assessment of the acquisition and application of knowledge The assessment of integrated knowledge Assessment of group and individual learning activities Process or product?

11 Why use PBL? PBL fosters a deeper approach to learning PBL promotes more versatile studying methods and PBL students are more likely to use different resources to study PBL develops greater knowledge retention and recall skills PBL students tend to exhibit stronger application of knowledge skills – (research evidence) From the teachers perspective, PBL appears to be very satisfying method of teaching

12 PBL sites /deliberations/home.html html html

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