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© Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences page 1 Paper presented at the DEE Conference, Cambridge/UK, 6-7 September 2007 Meaningful Double-Loop Learning in Educational Games: When Players Become Developers Michael Vogel Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences
© Prof. Dr. Michael P. Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences page 2 Objectives and Structure of the Paper 1.Find a way to enable meaningful double-loop learning in educational games 2.Illustrate this approach by means of the Cruise Industry Planning Game
page 3 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences Consequences Action strategies First learning loop (doing things right) Governing variables Second learning loop (doing the right things) Double-Loop Learning = First-Loop + Second-Loop Learning Source: Argyris, C. and Schön, D. (1978). Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective. Reading/Mass.: Addison Wesley.
page 4 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences Concrete experience Reflective Observation Active experimentation Abstract conceptualization Hands-on Minds-on Kolbs Experiential Learning Cycle Doing and Thinking Based on Young, M. R. (2002). Experiential Learning = Hands-On + Minds-On. Marketing Education Review 12 (1): 43-51
page 5 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences Game playingGame development Consequences Action strategies Governing variables First learning loop Second learning loop Game Playing and Development Mirrors Structure of First-Loop & Second-Loop Learning
page 6 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences Reflective observation Active experimentation Concrete experience Abstract conceptualization Game playing: first-loop learning Concrete experience Game development: second-loop learning Abstract conceptualization Active experimentation Reflective observation Nested cycles of experiential learning Participants = Experimenters & Guinea Pigs
page 7 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences External parameters Make decisions (decision form) Explain decisions (decision journal) Competitive information Allocate total demand to ships Compute the ships competitiveness scores Produce: income statement cash flow statement balance sheet Analyse data Develop or reassess strategy Plan next season Passenger numbers per ship Decision variables per ship The Cruise Industry Planning Game Cycle Setup for Single-Loop Learning
page 8 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences Competitiveness Scores Converging Evidence of First-Loop Learning 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% Round Competitiveness score Summer term 2006
page 9 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences Evolution of the Cruise Industry Planning Game History of Innovations Game playing Game development Summer term 2006 Several ports & itinerary planning Brand value concept & sales commissions Possibility to change the financing mix Revision of competitiveness score formula
page 10 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences Ship category Cruise rate Advertising expenditure Destination ports Rate of sales commission MARKET SIMULATION Relative brand value Relative rate of sales commission Port attractiveness score Port differentiation score Competitiveness score Summer term 2006 Competitiveness Score as Docking Point A Practical Approach to Game Extensions
page 11 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences Thank you very much. page 11 © Michael Vogel - Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences
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