Presentation on theme: "London Metropolitan University"— Presentation transcript:
1London Metropolitan University E-Learning and the Use ofVirtual Learning Environments in EconomicsGuglielmo VolpeLondon Metropolitan University
2Structure of Presentation E-Learning: Definition and UseVirtual Learning EnvironmentWeb 2.0 – Social SoftwareReusable Learning Objects
3E-Learning: Definition and Use “Mixture of the different preferred learning methods, delivered to the learner through the use of information technology. Supported with instructional design and engaging content”Use of E-LearningE-learning can be used effectively as a replacement for existing classroom training or as part of a blended Information Technology and classroom based training solution
4E-Learning Using E-Learning Support to students’ learning: IT provides a simple support to the learning process in terms of, for example, distribution of teaching materialEmbedded within module/course design to support chosen pedagogical approach: IT is integrated within the design of a module/course and is key to the achievement of desired learning outcomes
5Questions Did you experience e-learning yourself during your studies? If yes, in what form?How do you think e-learning can support students’ learningPut yourself in the position of a student: how could IT help your learning?
6Virtual Learning Environment “VLEs refer to the components in which learners and tutors participate in ‘online’ interactions of various kinds, including online learning” (JISC, 2001)Until recently the main products in the UK HE were ‘Blackboard’ and ‘WebCT’The two companies have now merged and ‘WebCT Vista’ (do not confuse it with new Microsoft OS!!) is now the new main product on the marketVista aims at being ‘more’ than just a virtual learning environment – Integrated solution for academic management
7Virtual Learning Environment VLEs provide an e-box full of e-tools that can be combined to support or drive students’ learningCommunication tools ( s, notice boards, blogs, student’s journal-PDP)Assessment toolsRepository for and distribution of teaching and learning materialShared spaces for studentsStudents management system (registration, tracking, performance)Students space
8Virtual Learning Environment Levels of VLE Use (Mason, 1998)Content and support model: pre-prepared content is delivered in print or online and support is provided onlineWrap-around model: where there is a mixture of pre-prepared content and online learning activities (online discussions, collaborative activities)Integrated model: where most of the learning takes place via collaborative online activities and content is determined mainly by the learners
9Virtual Learning Environment Levels of use (Cook, 1999)SimplePosting course information and materialIncluding links to other online materialCommunication between students and lecturersProvide a ‘shell’ for computer-assisted learning resourcesAssessment – self-assessment and end-of-term assessmentIntegrating online activities, support and materials with lecturers and seminarsCollaborative student projectsDelivering complete online courses with fully integrated activitiesComplex
10Virtual Learning Environment: levels of use Posting course information and materialLecture notes, reading lists, handbooksAssignment detailsOverall: repository and distribution of teaching materialIncluding links to other online materialLinks to external resources (articles, datasets, international organisations websites, researcher’s website etc.)Students-posted links: links can be posted by students themselves via discussion board, personal website, blogs etc.
11Virtual Learning Environment: levels of use Communication between students and tutorsDiscussion Board: to foster class discussion about topic or issues: allows students to privately among themselves or with tutor within VLEChat Rooms: synchronous communication among students logged into the VLE – Useful for direct debate about sudden issue; office hours?; virtual seminar?Blogs: posts entries/topics/discussions that students can look and reply toStudent’s Journal: private space for student to post personal reflections on her/his studiesProvide a ‘shell’ for computer-assisted learning resourcesInteractive learning (economics) material freely available on the web can be included in VLEReusable Learning Objects???
12Virtual Learning Environment: levels of use Summative and Formative AssessmentCreate questions databanks that can be used to generate self-assessment quizzes and end-of-term examsAssessment Tools Include: multiple choice tests, True or False questions, short answers, matching wordsIntegrating online activities, support and materials with lecturers and seminarsComplement lecture with online tutorials that end up with self-assessmentAsk students to engage in discussion forum about specific issues raised in class – quality and quantity of contribution can be assessedOverall: design a system whereby the learning objectives can be achieved through an integration of ‘old’ and ‘new’ technologies
13Virtual Learning Environment: levels of use Collaborative student projectsStudents work in groups towards the solution of a taskThe communication tools can be used to work together and to exchange information with other groupsDelivering complete online courses with fully integrated activitiesAll the teaching, learning and assessment material is developed in an integrated way within the VLELimited or no contact with the tutorLearner more in control of his learning
14Virtual Learning Environment: Pros and Cons AdvantagesEasy online delivery of materialEasiness of use for both staff and studentsFlexible use by studentsIdeal support for large groups of studentsFlexible support for lecturersStimulates innovative approaches to learning and teachingDisadvantagesCould become just simple ‘dumping ground’ for any type of materialIPR and Copyright issuesInitial fixed cost in setting up website; cost of regularly updating websiteOn and off-campus access to hardware, network and printingDisability issuesSupport for students in dealing with technologyInstitutional support for staff
15Are VLEs the Future?There is an increasing recognition of the tension between the monolithic VLE that tends to see university business from an administrative view rather than from the perspective of the individual student, and an individual's personalised view of the environment they work, study and live within. This tension runs to the very heart of what universities and higher/further education is about… Successful technologies in the 21st century are all about “helping people”, exemplified by the success of Google in helping people find stuff on the internet. This is in contrast with the trend in the late 20th century of building big institutions, databases containing large amounts of content… So the current trend is towards small groups of students and workers able to learn anywhere with freely available content where the emphasis is on the social aspect of learning. This has huge implications for traditional universities, who will need to think creatively about learning, assessment and particularly learning spaces to attract tomorrow’s learners (Heppell, 2006)
16Web 2.0 – Social SoftwareUse of networked computers to connect people in order to boost their knowledge and their ability to learn (blogs, wikis, podcasting, videoblogs, social networking – facebook, myspace)Microcontent: break away from Web as a book – blogs are about posts, wikis are stream of conversation, revision, truncation, amendmentsOpennessUsers to play fundamental role in information architecture (wisdom of crowds)Folksonomies: words that users generate and attach to content
17Web 2.0 – Social Software Social Bookmarking – del.icio.us Ability to store, share, describe bookmarksBookmarks are tagged and searches can be made according to tagsRole in Higher Education?Outbound Memory: location to store links that might be lost to timeHelp finding people with similar or related interests, learn from others, new collaborationsClusters of tags reveal patterns not immediately visible by examining URLsMulti-authored bookmark pages can be helpful for team projectsFollowing a bookmark site gives insights into the owner’s research
18Web 2.0 – Social Software Social Writing Platforms Wiki pages allow users to quickly edit their content from within the browser windowCollaborative writing softwares (Writeboard, Writely)Role in Higher Education?Students group learningDepartment collaborative work
19Web 2.0 – Social Software Blogging Role in Higher Education? Learning from news, articles, analysesSearch across time as news/views developCollaboration across departments, universities, etc.Awareness of topical issue
20Reusable Learning Objects: The New? Reusable learning objects are web-based interactive chunks of e-learning designed to explain a stand-alone learning objective. The fact that the learning object has been broken down to a low level of granularity facilitates its reuse in different learning and teaching situationsRLOs are stored in repositories which are an electronic library in which learning objects are stored. Learning objects can be retrieved from a repository by a teacher working at a standard desktop PCIncorporating appropriate pedagogy (i.e. learning and teaching methods and strategies) into the effective use of learning objects is an important issue to consider in the development of RLOsA Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for Reusable Learning Objects has been created in partnership between Cambridge University, London Metropolitan University and Nottingham University
21New Technologies?Mobile Phones: students interact a lot through text-messaging or distant communication. Can this technology be used to support students’ learning?Handheld Computers (PDAs): could learning material be distributed through PDAs and can students be asked to engage in their learning through this technology?iPods: they are very common among young people. Could this technology be used to support learning?DevelopmentsTests are taking place to develop RLOs for mobile phones and PDAsSome universities have developed T&L material for iPods and some lecturers have given up big-lecture teaching!Some universities give iPods to their students and they keep it if they pass the course!
22References Publications Cook J., (1999), Virtual Learning Environments: Making the Web Easy to Use for Teachers and Learners, University of Bristol, available onHeppell S., (2006), Helping learners to help each other: why learning in the 21st century is a very different place, Available onMason R., (1998), ‘Models of online Courses’, ALN Magazine, vol. 2, n. 2O’Leary R., Ramsden A., (2001), Virtual Learning Environments, The Handbook for Economics Lecturers, Economics Network, available onBryan A., (2006), “Web 2.0. A New Wave of Innovation for Teaching and Learning?”, Educause Review, available onWebsitesJISC on e-learning:RLO Cetl:Learning Development & Innovation Moodle at Staffordshire University