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What is Development? Systematic changes and continuities –In the individual –Between conception and death “Womb to Tomb” Three broad domains –Physical,

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Presentation on theme: "What is Development? Systematic changes and continuities –In the individual –Between conception and death “Womb to Tomb” Three broad domains –Physical,"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Development? Systematic changes and continuities –In the individual –Between conception and death “Womb to Tomb” Three broad domains –Physical, Cognitive, Psychosocial

2 Other Developmental Definitions Growth: Physical changes that occur from birth to maturity Aging: Positive and negative changes in the mature organism Maturation: The biological unfolding of the individual genetic plan Learning: Relatively permanent changes due to environmental experiences

3 Age Grades, Age Norms, and the Social Clock Age Grade: Socially defined age groups –Statuses, roles, privileges, responsibilities –Adults can vote, children can’t Age Norms: Behavioral expectations by age –Children attend school Social Clock: When things should be done –Early adulthood – time for 1 st marriages “Off time” experiences are more difficult

4 Life-Span Phases in Historical Context Only two phases: Childhood & Adulthood 1600: Children viewed as miniature adults Modern view: innocence, need protection Average life expectancy in 1900: 49 yrs. 1998 –Females} White:80 yrs, Black:75 yrs –Males} White:75 yrs, Black 68 yrs –Increasing population of age 65+

5 Framing the Nature/Nurture Issue Nature: heredity –Maturational processes guided by genes –Biologically based predispositions –Biological unfolding of genes Nurture: environment –Learning: experiences cause changes is thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Interactionist view: nature & nurture interact

6 Figure 1.1

7 Methods of Studying Life-Span Development Historical –Baby Biographies: Charles Darwin –Questionnaires: G. Stanley Hall Key Assumptions of Modern Life-Span Perspectives –Lifelong, multidirectional process –Gain and loss and lifelong plasticity –Historical/cultural contexts, multiple influences –Multi-disciplinary studies

8 HOW IS RESEARCH CONDUCTED The Scientific Method Theory- a set of concepts and propositions intended to describe and explain some aspect of behavior Hypothesis- specific prediction regarding a particular set of observations Sample Selection Random Sample- a sample formed by identifying all members of the larger population and then, by random means, selecting a portion of that population to study.

9 Conducting Developmental Research Self-reports: interview, questionnaires, tests Behavioral Observations –Naturalistic Advantage: natural setting Disadvantage: conditions not controlled –Structured (Lab) Disadvantage: cannot generalize to natural settings Advantage: conditions controlled

10 Figure 1.2

11 The Correlational Method Determine if 2 or more variables are related Correlation: A measure of the relationship –Can range from +1.0 to –1.0 –Positive: variables move in same direction –Negative: variables move in opposite dir. No relationship if correlation is 0 Cannot establish a causal relationship

12 Figure 1.3

13 The Experimental Method Three Critical Features –1. Manipulation of independent variable –2. Random assignment of individuals to treatment conditions –3. Experimental control Quasi-Experiment: No random assignment

14 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Some aspect of the environment is manipulated or altered to see how this affects the behavior of the sample of individuals being investigated. Independent Variable: variable in the experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter Dependent Variable: variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment Random Assignment: researchers assign participants to the experimental and control groups by chance Advantage Establishes cause Disadvantages Generalize to the real world Ethical considerations


16 DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGNS Cross-sectional design- performances of people of different age groups, or cohorts are compared. Looks at age differences Longitudinal design- the performance of one cohort of individuals is assessed repeatedly over time. Looks at age changes Sequential design- combines the cross- sectional and longitudinal approach in one study

17 Figure 1.4

18 Age, Cohort, and Time of Measurement Effects Age effects: Changes which occur due to age Cohort Effects: Born in one historical context –Changes due to differences in society –Disadvantage of cross-sectional design Time of measurement effects: Historical –Take place at time of data collection –Disadvantage of longitudinal design

19 Sequential Designs A combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal designs Advantages of both designs Gives information about –Which age-related trends are age effects? –Which age-related trends are truly cohort effects? –Which age-related trends are a result of historical events?

20 Figure 1.6


22 Protecting the Rights of Participants Risk to benefit balance of the research Researcher responsibilities –Informed consent –Debriefing –Protection from harm –Confidentiality

23 Sources of Change * Normative Age Graded Influences highly similar across individuals/cultures often biological relevant to early development * Normative History Grade Influences forces unique to a period in history * Non-normative Influences unique to the individual

24 The Ecology of Human Development Bronfenbrenner: Bioecological Model –How nature and nurture interact to produce development The biological, psychological, person Four environmental systems –Microsystem: family, school, work –Mesosystem: interactions among microsystems –Exosystem: society –Macrosystem: culture

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