Presentation on theme: "The Grid What is it? what is it for?. Your university or experiment logo here Web: information sharing Invented at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee No. of Internet."— Presentation transcript:
The Grid What is it? what is it for?
Your university or experiment logo here Web: information sharing Invented at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee No. of Internet hosts (millions) Year Agreed protocols: HTTP, HTML, URLs Anyone can access information and post their own Quickly crossed over into public use Tim Berners- Lee
Your university or experiment logo here SETI@home Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence Uses home PCs to analyse radio telescope data in bits Distributed computing project, not a grid Users - 5,414,992 Results received - 1,862,972,261 Years of CPU Time – 2,286,333 Extraterrestrials found – 0 Other @home projects ClimatePrediction.net United Devices Cancer Research Project
Your university or experiment logo here File-sharing No centralised database of files Legal problems with sharing copyrighted material Security problems Peer to peer Centralised network Peer-to-peer network
Your university or experiment logo here Flashmob Computing Over 700 PCs connected Best run – 150 PCs, 77 GFlops Good for interdependent parallel problems Cheap, ad hoc, relies on volunteers Not permanent Idea of graduate students at University of San Francisco Connect PCs via a LAN, all working on the same problem = instant supercomputer FlashMob 1 San Francisco, 7 April 2004
Your university or experiment logo here Grid: Resource Sharing Share more than information Data, computing power, applications MIDDLEWARE CPU Cluster User Interface Machine CPU Cluster Resource Broker Disk Server Your Program Disks, CPU etc PROGRAMS OPERATING SYSTEM Word/Excel Email/Web Your Program Games Middleware handles everything Single computer The Grid
Your university or experiment logo here Electricity Grid Analogy with the Electricity Power Grid 'Standard Interface' Power Stations Distribution Infrastructure
Your university or experiment logo here Computing Grid Computing and Data Centres Fibre Optics of the Internet
Your university or experiment logo here How does it work?
Your university or experiment logo here What can you do with a Grid? Astronomy Healthcare Bioinformatics Digital curation To create digital Libraries and Museums Scanning Remote consultancy Optical X ray Digitize almost anything
Your university or experiment logo here Particle Physics
Your university or experiment logo here The CERN LHC 4 Large Experiments The worlds most powerful particle accelerator - 2007
Your university or experiment logo here ATLAS and CMS General purpose Origin of mass Supersymmetry 2,000 scientists from 34 countries ATLAS General purpose detector 1,800 scientists from over 150 institutions CMS
Your university or experiment logo here LHCb and ALICE Studying the differences between matter and anti- matter LHCb will detect over 100 million b and b-bar mesons each year LHCb These experiments will produce Petabytes of data 1 PByte = 1,000,000 GByte Heavy ion collisions, to create quark-gluon plasmas 50,000 particles in each collision ALICE Concorde (15 Km) Mt. Blanc (4.8 Km) One years data from LHC would fill a stack of CDs 20km high
Your university or experiment logo here What is the origin of mass? Is it the Higgs Particle? Looking for the Higgs Massless Particle – Travels at the speed of light Low Mass Particle – Travels slower High Mass Particle – Travels slower still Not yet proven experimentally Bigger and better particle accelerator - LHC
Your university or experiment logo here Why do particle physicists need the Grid? Large amounts of data International collaborations Example from LHC: starting from this event… …we are looking for this signature Selectivity: 1 in 10 13 Like looking for 1 person in a thousand world populations Or for a needle in 20 million haystacks! ~100,000,000 electronic channels 800,000,000 proton- proton interactions per second 0.0002 Higgs per second 10 PBytes of data a year (10 Million GBytes = 14 Million CDs)
Your university or experiment logo here GridPP 19 UK Universities, CCLRC (RAL & Daresbury) and CERN Funded by PPARC (Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council) Currently used by running US experiments BaBar (b mesons), D0 and CDF (proton- antiproton collisions) 20 Sites 3 Countries (England, Scotland, Wales) 2,740 CPUs 67 Tbytes storage Our Grid works!
Your university or experiment logo here LCG GridPP is part of LCG – currently the largest Grid in the world 138 Sites 34 Countries 13,784 CPUs 4402 Tbytes storage
Your university or experiment logo here Tier 0 Where data comes from Tier 1 National centres Tier 2 Regional groups Tier 3 Institutes Tier 4 Workstations Offline farm Online system CERN computer centre RAL,UK ScotGridNorthGridSouthGridLondon ItalyUSA GlasgowEdinburghDurham Tier Structure France Germany Detector
Your university or experiment logo here UK Tier-1/A Centre High quality data services National and International Role UK focus for International Grid development 1000 Dual CPU 200 TB Disk 220 TB Tape (Capacity 1PB) Grid Operations Centre
Your university or experiment logo here UK Tier-2 Centres ScotGrid Durham, Edinburgh, Glasgow NorthGrid Daresbury, Lancaster, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield SouthGrid Birmingham, Bristol, Cambridge, Oxford, RAL PPD, Warwick London Brunel, Imperial, QMUL, RHUL, UCL Mostly funded by HEFCE
Your university or experiment logo here Other Grids UK National Grid Service –UKs core production computational and data Grid EGEE (Europe) –Enabling Grids for E- sciencE Nordugrid (Europe) –Grid Research and Development collaboration Open Science Grid (USA) –Science applications from HEP to biochemistry
Your university or experiment logo here The Future Grow the LHC Grid Spread beyond science –Healthcare, commercial uses, government, games Will it become part of everyday life?