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1 CHAPTER 11 Motivating Students to Learn. 2 1.1 Exploring Motivation Motivation: The drive to satisfy a need and the reason why people behave the way.

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Presentation on theme: "1 CHAPTER 11 Motivating Students to Learn. 2 1.1 Exploring Motivation Motivation: The drive to satisfy a need and the reason why people behave the way."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 CHAPTER 11 Motivating Students to Learn

2 2 1.1 Exploring Motivation Motivation: The drive to satisfy a need and the reason why people behave the way they do. –Motivated behaviour is energized, directed and sustained.

3 3 1.2 Exploring Motivation 3 main perspectives on motivation: 1.The Behavioural Perspective Emphasizes external rewards and punishments as keys in motivation Incentives: positive or negative stimuli 2.The Humanistic Perspective Stresses students’ capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose their destiny Self-actualization 3.The Cognitive Perspective Students’ thoughts guide motivation Competence motivation: people are motivated to deal effectively with their world, to master their world and to process information efficiently

4 4 1.3 The Humanistic Perspective: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Needs Safety Needs Belonging and Love Esteem Need to Know and Understand Aesthetic Needs Self- Actualization Growth Needs Deficiency Needs

5 5 2.1 Achievement Motivation Students with Extrinsic Motivation Students with Intrinsic Motivation  Do something to obtain something else.  Are influenced by rewards and punishments.  Demonstrate self- determination by doing something for its own sake.  Increase motivation when they are given some personal choice.

6 6 2.2 Self-Determination and Personal Choice Events that foster a sense of self-determination or competence enhance (or at least maintain) intrinsic motivation To promote self-determination in your classroom : –Explain to students the importance of learning activities –Be attentive to students’ feelings –Allow students to make personal choices –Allow them to divide into self-selected groups –Create learning centres where they can work individually or collaboratively

7 7 2.3 Optimal Experience and Flow Flow : feeling we get when engaged in activities that provide us with both a sense of meaning and a degree of happiness.

8 8 2.4 Attribution Theory Attribution Theory: in our attempts to make sense of our own behaviour or performance we seek or assign underlying causes - (excuses/reasons for success or failure). Locus: –Students who perceive their success as being due to internal factors (i.e., effort) are more likely to have higher self-esteem. Stability: –If a student attributes positive outcome to a stable cause, there is an expectation of future success. Controllability: –Failure due to external factors causes anger. –Failure due to internal factors may cause guilt.

9 9 2.6 Achievement Orientation Mastery Orientation: Students focus on the task, not their ability, have positive effect, and generate solution- oriented strategies that improve performance. Helpless Orientation: Students focus on their personal inadequacies and attribute difficulty to lack of ability, and have negative affect Performance Orientation: Students are more concerned with outcomes than process

10 Self-Efficacy A belief that what you do can produce positive outcomes Students with high self-efficacy: –Set higher goals and persevere to attain them –Invest more effort\persist in difficult tasks longer –Recover more quickly from setbacks Schools that promote self-efficacy: –Have high expectations and standards for achievement –Have teachers & principals who work together to improve instruction

11 Teaching Strategies for Improving Self-Efficacy Teach goal setting Teach relevant strategies Monitor students’ affect Provide appropriate mentors and models.

12 Self Regulatory Learning Self-generation of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours to reach a goal Three important concepts: 1.Goals 2.Planning 3.Self-monitoring

13 Social Relationships Motivation to Achieve Parents should provide the right amount of challenge in a positive environment and model achievement behaviour. Peers with high achievement standards will support student achievement in others. Teachers optimize achievement when they provide challenging tasks in a supportive environment.

14 Sociocultural Contexts: Gender differences Have higher competence beliefs in math and sports High expectations for success in math courses and careers that require math & science ability Have higher competence beliefs in English, reading, and social activities High expectations for success in language courses and careers that require writing & speaking ability FemalesMales

15 Teaching Strategies for Motivating Students Create an atmosphere that promotes learning Help students achieve expectations Encourage students’ intrinsic motivation Help students establish goals Use technology effectively Be a model (but not Kate Moss)

16 Motivating Discouraged Students Failure Syndrome “Increase self-efficacy retraining and attribution training.” Protection of Self-Worth by Avoiding Failure “Includes non- performance, procrastination, and inappropriate goal setting.” Low Achievers with Low Expectations “Provide constant reassurance as long as student demonstrates effort.”

17 Motivating Uninterested Students Develop positive student-teacher relationships Show patience, but maintain expectations Keep their interests in mind Teach strategies to make academics more enjoyable Consider enlisting mentors whom the student respects


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