Presentation on theme: "1 CHAPTER 11 Motivating Students to Learn. 2 1.1 Exploring Motivation Motivation: The drive to satisfy a need and the reason why people behave the way."— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 11 Motivating Students to Learn
2 1.1 Exploring Motivation Motivation: The drive to satisfy a need and the reason why people behave the way they do. –Motivated behaviour is energized, directed and sustained.
3 1.2 Exploring Motivation 3 main perspectives on motivation: 1.The Behavioural Perspective Emphasizes external rewards and punishments as keys in motivation Incentives: positive or negative stimuli 2.The Humanistic Perspective Stresses students’ capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose their destiny Self-actualization 3.The Cognitive Perspective Students’ thoughts guide motivation Competence motivation: people are motivated to deal effectively with their world, to master their world and to process information efficiently
4 1.3 The Humanistic Perspective: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Needs Safety Needs Belonging and Love Esteem Need to Know and Understand Aesthetic Needs Self- Actualization Growth Needs Deficiency Needs
5 2.1 Achievement Motivation Students with Extrinsic Motivation Students with Intrinsic Motivation Do something to obtain something else. Are influenced by rewards and punishments. Demonstrate self- determination by doing something for its own sake. Increase motivation when they are given some personal choice.
6 2.2 Self-Determination and Personal Choice Events that foster a sense of self-determination or competence enhance (or at least maintain) intrinsic motivation To promote self-determination in your classroom : –Explain to students the importance of learning activities –Be attentive to students’ feelings –Allow students to make personal choices –Allow them to divide into self-selected groups –Create learning centres where they can work individually or collaboratively
7 2.3 Optimal Experience and Flow Flow : feeling we get when engaged in activities that provide us with both a sense of meaning and a degree of happiness.
8 2.4 Attribution Theory Attribution Theory: in our attempts to make sense of our own behaviour or performance we seek or assign underlying causes - (excuses/reasons for success or failure). Locus: –Students who perceive their success as being due to internal factors (i.e., effort) are more likely to have higher self-esteem. Stability: –If a student attributes positive outcome to a stable cause, there is an expectation of future success. Controllability: –Failure due to external factors causes anger. –Failure due to internal factors may cause guilt.
9 2.6 Achievement Orientation Mastery Orientation: Students focus on the task, not their ability, have positive effect, and generate solution- oriented strategies that improve performance. Helpless Orientation: Students focus on their personal inadequacies and attribute difficulty to lack of ability, and have negative affect Performance Orientation: Students are more concerned with outcomes than process
Self-Efficacy A belief that what you do can produce positive outcomes Students with high self-efficacy: –Set higher goals and persevere to attain them –Invest more effort\persist in difficult tasks longer –Recover more quickly from setbacks Schools that promote self-efficacy: –Have high expectations and standards for achievement –Have teachers & principals who work together to improve instruction
Teaching Strategies for Improving Self-Efficacy Teach goal setting Teach relevant strategies Monitor students’ affect Provide appropriate mentors and models.
Self Regulatory Learning Self-generation of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours to reach a goal Three important concepts: 1.Goals 2.Planning 3.Self-monitoring
Social Relationships Motivation to Achieve Parents should provide the right amount of challenge in a positive environment and model achievement behaviour. Peers with high achievement standards will support student achievement in others. Teachers optimize achievement when they provide challenging tasks in a supportive environment.
Sociocultural Contexts: Gender differences Have higher competence beliefs in math and sports High expectations for success in math courses and careers that require math & science ability Have higher competence beliefs in English, reading, and social activities High expectations for success in language courses and careers that require writing & speaking ability FemalesMales
Teaching Strategies for Motivating Students Create an atmosphere that promotes learning Help students achieve expectations Encourage students’ intrinsic motivation Help students establish goals Use technology effectively Be a model (but not Kate Moss)
Motivating Discouraged Students Failure Syndrome “Increase self-efficacy retraining and attribution training.” Protection of Self-Worth by Avoiding Failure “Includes non- performance, procrastination, and inappropriate goal setting.” Low Achievers with Low Expectations “Provide constant reassurance as long as student demonstrates effort.”
Motivating Uninterested Students Develop positive student-teacher relationships Show patience, but maintain expectations Keep their interests in mind Teach strategies to make academics more enjoyable Consider enlisting mentors whom the student respects