Open Access Repositories where we are now Bill Hubbard SHERPA Manager University of Nottingham
Institutional repositories Digital collections that preserve and provide access to the intellectual output of an institution.* Encouraging wider use of open access information assets May contain a variety of digital objects –e-prints, –theses, –e-learning objects, –datasets * Raym Crow The case for institutional repositories: a SPARC position paper. 2002.
Open Access for the researcher Wide dissemination –papers more visible –cited more Rapid dissemination Ease of access Cross-searchable Value added services –hit counts on papers –personalised publications lists –citation analyses
publication & deposition Author writes paper Submits to journal
publication & deposition Author writes paper Submits to journal Deposits in e-print repository pre-print
publication & deposition Author writes paper Submits to journal Paper refereed Deposits in e-print repository pre-print
publication & deposition Author writes paper Submits to journal Paper refereed Revised by author Deposits in e-print repository pre-print
publication & deposition Author writes paper Submits to journal Paper refereed Revised by author Author submits final version Deposits in e-print repository pre-print
publication & deposition Author writes paper Submits to journal Paper refereed Revised by author Author submits final version Deposits in e-print repository pre-print post-print
publication & deposition Author writes paper Submits to journal Paper refereed Revised by author Author submits final version Published in journal Deposits in e-print repository pre-print post-print
publication & deposition Author writes paper Submits to journal Paper refereed Revised by author Author submits final version Published in journal Deposits in e-print repository pre-print post-print published version
Other benefits For the institution –facilitates use and re-use of the information assets –raises profile and prestige of institution –manages institutional information assets - RAE –long-term cost savings For the research community –frees up the communication process –avoids unnecessary duplication
Benefits for society in general Publicly-funded research publicly available Public understanding of science Knowledge transfer Health and social services Culture
Repository basis Institutional repositories combined with location- specific or subject-based search services Practical reasons –use institutional infrastructure –integration into work-flows and systems –support is close to academic users and contributors OAI-PMH allows a single gateway to search and access many repositories –subject-based portals or views –subject-based classification and search
Repository content Preprints Postprints Datasets Learning objects Videos Sound files linkage between these objects Theses Dissertations Royalty publications Conference papers Conference organisation Grey literature
Repository use Access to material Citation analysis Overlay journals Review projects Evidence based work Data-mining Cross-institutional research group virtual research environments... Services built on top RAE-like submissions, activities and management Archival storage Shop-windows Facilitate industrial links Career-long personalised work spaces
Repositories are spreading because... Give easy access Give rapid access Give long-term access Increase readership and use of material They offer advantages to academics They offer advantages to institutions They offer advantages to research funders They offer new ways for information to be linked and used
Russell Group University of Birmingham University of Bristol University of Cambridge Cardiff University University of Edinburgh University of Glasgow Imperial College King's College London University of Leeds University of Liverpool LSE University of Manchester University of Newcastle University of Nottingham University of Oxford University of Sheffield University of Southampton University of Warwick University College London 18 out of 19
1994 Group University of Bath University of Durham University of East Anglia University of Essex University of Surrey University of Exeter Lancaster University Birkbeck University of London Goldsmiths LSE Royal Holloway University of Reading University of St Andrews University of Sussex University of Warwick University of York 68% operational repositories or active repository programmes
UK Institutional Repositories AHDS S Bath Birkbeck S Birmingham S Bristol S British Library S Cambridge S CCLRC Cranfield Durham S Edinburgh S Glasgow S Imperial S Lancaster Leeds S LSE S Kings College S Newcastle S Nottingham S Open University Oxford S Royal Holloway S Sheffield S St Andrews SOAS S Southampton Stirling Surrey UCL S York S Warwick
Academic concerns Subject base more natural ? –institutional infrastructure, view by subject Quality control ? –peer-review clearly labelled Plagiarism –old problem - and easier to detect I already have my papers on my website... –unstructured for RAE, access, search, preservation Threat to journals? –evidence shows co-existence possible - but in the future... ?
Administrator concerns Setting up the repository –technical solutions Populating the repository and advocacy Maintenance costs Preservation Service models and costs –author-deposition –mediated-deposition –mixed economies
Barriers to adoption Copyright restrictions –approx.. 93% (of Nottinghams) journals allow their authors to archive Embargoes –defines relationship of publisher to research Cultural barriers to adoption Authors are willing to use repositories –79% would deposit willingly if required to do so Deposition policies are key
Developments & schisms Open Access –but not OAI-PMH –but not scholarly material –is scholarly, but innovative content Repositories gaining connections - & loosing clarity? –Modified to accept publishers embargoes –Relating or merging with research assessment needs Spin and confusions - open access –but hedged with restrictive rights-limitations –but not free - subscription or fee required –but not immediate access –but not full-text
SHERPA SHERPA - an outcome of JISC's strategy & support Facilitated establishment and development of repositories in partner institutions Examined issues for repository growth
SHERPA Partners –University of Nottingham –University of Birmingham –University of Bristol –University of Cambridge –University of Durham –University of Edinburgh –University of Glasgow –London LEAP Consortium –University of Newcastle –University of Oxford –White Rose Partnership –The British Library –Arts & Humanities Data Service London LEAP Consortium –Birkbeck College –Goldsmiths College –Imperial College –Institute of Cancer Research –Kings College –London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) –Royal Holloway –Queen Mary –School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) –School of Pharmacy (SoP) –University College, London (UCL) White Rose Partnership –University of Leeds –University of Sheffield –University of York
SHERPA - current projects SHERPA Plus OpenDOAR SHERPA/RoMEO SHERPA DP PROSPERO RDN IR Search Service DRIVER EThOS MIDESS, IRIS, VERSIONS, SPECTRa and StORe
SHERPA - practical outcomes Establishing an archive, individual or consortium Basic technical needs Basic costs Populating an archive Copyright Advocacy & changing working habits Mounting material Maintenance Preservation Concerns
Demonstrations SHERPA Nottingham Repository Google SHERPA/RoMEO OpenDOAR OpenDOAR developments
SHERPA is... opening access to research Partners Birkbeck, Birmingham, Bristol, British Library, Cambridge, Durham, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Goldsmiths, ICR, Imperial, Kings, Leeds, LSE, Kings, Newcastle, Nottingham, Oxford, Queen Mary, Royal Holloway, Sheffield, SOAS, SoP, UCL, York, AHDS SHERPA Plus A two year project to encourage the development of the national repository infrastructure in the UK SHERPA DP Working towards a practical model for a national digital preservation service for open access repositories SHERPA/RoMEO An online reference service listing the different open access rights authors retain with different publishers OpenDOAR An global directory of open access repositories, Working in partnership with Lund University. PROSPERO A national repository for UK academics whose Institutions do not yet have a repository. RDN Search Service A UK HE-focussed service to search open access repositories around the world. DRIVER An EU project to establish and promote a european network of academic repositories. For more details of SHERPAs work see http://www.sherpa.ac.uk Supporting Institutional ePrint Repositories in the UK ePrints are... electronic versions of research papers full-text journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, reports etc pre-prints (pre-refereed papers) if these are used by the subject discipline post-prints (post peer-review papers) that are duplicates of the published text Institutional Repositories are... a complement - not a replacement - for existing publishing processes archives of an institutions research output open access - which means the contents can be viewed for free by anyone online Benefits of Repositories... allow academics to disseminate and re-use their own work papers are more visible: evidence shows they are cited more allow wide and rapid dissemination access barriers for researchers are removed all repositories are cross-searchable as one virtual repository structured environment allows targeted searches IRs are indexed by general search engines provide a showcase for an authors, department's or institutions output Why Institutional? can support academics in every discipline centralised resources for start up, support and preservation can help in research management & RAE eprints in institutional repositories can be found through subject gateways store locally – find globally Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation & Access
Futures 10 years - what changes are coming down the track and what responses are needed? What is inside your control and what is outside? Irrespective of repositories, author-side charges, open access - what will develop? Developments in the web and ICT alone will produce substantial change... Some themes...
Future themes Journals - what is happening now and what will develop in the future? –subscriptions, commercial pressures, staffing... Academics & IT - what will people expect from IT? –access, speed, integration... Research funding and processes - how is research changing? –what stakeholders are involved and what do they want?... How will this effect current publishing models? How will this effect open access and repositories?
Journals Governments will not loosen the purse strings Subscriptions per journal will continue to decline Continued agglomeration of publishing concerns Smaller publishers will continue to be squeezed and have to react The big and the nimble will survive Editorial and peer-review process will be technologically mediated Unbundling of products, processes and services - with a global marketplace for service provision
Academics and IT Increasing connectivity Increasing demand for rapid, permanent access, everywhere Increasing demand for more information Increasing demand for free access Information per se will be more freely available and the links between information will become the valued commodity
Research Full Economic Costing and Value For Money Public awareness and availability Raised awareness of IPR issues Institutions being pressured to capitalise on their assets Cross-disciplinary research Synthesis - evidence based research - data mining Emergence of global standards - quality control? - with a global marketplace for service provision
What will happen? Who knows? But whatever happens - If definitive versions are of value to research work (and they are) –then they will be used If journals are of value to research work (and they are) –then they will be used If publishers are of value to research work (and they are) –then they will be used If learned societies are of value to research work (and they are) –then they will be used If repositories of work are of value to research work (and they are) –then they will be used
Future Themes - discussion Which themes are independant of OA Which themes relate to OA Which will be solved through OA The fit of current business models within the business environment of 2016 The fit of OA within business environment of 2016
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