Presentation on theme: "Drought in Kenya and its Humanitarian consequences."— Presentation transcript:
Drought in Kenya and its Humanitarian consequences
Introduction Arid and Semi-Arid lands (ASAL) cover about 88% of the total area of the country. Arid areas - 125 and 500 mm of rainfall p.a. Semi arid areas - 400 and 1250 mm of rainfall p.a. The economic mainstay - livestock production. Region owns 50% of Kenyas livestock population Region experiencing frequent and more severe droughts due to climate change. Increasing frequency of drought contributing to accelerating poverty in the ASAL areas (>70%).
-contd Drought causes a reduction in the natural potential of the land and depletion of surface and ground resources. It has negative repercussions on the living conditions and the economic development of the people affected by it. Currently, the lowest HDIs are found in areas frequently hit by drought
Environmental problems Increased pests and diseases, soil erosion, habitat and landscape degradation, a decrease in air and water quality, and increased risk of fires In prolonged droughts, natural environments fail to rebound and plant and animal species can suffer tremendously, and over time causing desertification desertification Negative coping strategies for survival such as increased over-exploitation of accessible natural resources, helps to aggravate desertification and hold up development.
Economic impacts A decline in crop yields and livestock productivity implies a reduction in income for farmers, those with economic ties to it, and an increase in the market price of products Acute lack of water & pasture results in livestock and wildlife losses A prolonged drought will cause unemployment of farmers and retailers, Diversion of development funds to emergency Increased poverty and malnutrition
Social impacts Disputes between users of available natural resources, inequalities in resource allocation or access, disparities in relief assistance, A decline in health, poor sanitation, increased poverty and eventually death. Prolonged, separation of families may occur due to migration causing food insecurity, malnutrition and increased risk of mortality Desperate search for water & pasture will intensify clashes, livestock raids, banditry and social unrest. Education – children schooling affected distance and poor performance
Drought preparedness Drought is a slow onset disaster, It is relatively easy to tell when one is coming and can plan for intervention measures. Measures include: Preparedness and contingency planning Mitigation and Relief - to reduce the impacts Recovery activities to restore social dignity
Early Warning System Provides timely, reliable drought status information used in decision making and response planning at national, district and community levels
Importance of EWS Information on current status (stage) of drought Information on risk of food insecurity or humanitarian emergency Information on risk of loses Recommendations for necessary actions at each stage of drought and/or Risk level
Indicators Monitored Environmental indicators (Stability Indicators) Rainfall performance Condition of Natural Vegetation and Pasture Water Sources and Availability and Access Rural economy indicators (Food Availability) Food Production from households (livestock and crops) Availability of food commodities in the market
Access to food Prices of food commodities Crops – maize, beans, posho, rice Livestock – main species cattle, goats, sheep and camel. Income from crops, livestock, and others
Welfare Indicators Nutrition Status Health status Coping strategies – CSI Terms of trade Ongoing interventions
What is monitored Each quantitative indicator is analyzed by: Sentinel site, LZ, Division, District Compare: Trends Deviations from normal or average Long term average and current situation Assign Drought Status
January to mid-March Short dry spell Mid-March to May Long rains -unreliable June to Mid-October Long dry spell Mid-October to December Short rains - reliable Pastoral and agro-pastoral livelihoods High temperatures, livestock migration, herd separation, livestock marketing, land preparation, harvesting, dry p[lanting, Pasture surveys, mating, planting, weeding, selection &breeding of livestock traditional ceremonies, Weaving, restocking of livestock, High labour demand. High temperatures, windy, and dusty, calving, kidding, harvesting, migration, marketing, land preparation, Destocking, culling, pasture &browse surveys, caravan water treking, Restocking of livestock, Breeding, planting, green harvest, crafts and weaving, calving and kidding period Mixed farming and marginal agriculture livelihoods Short rain harvest Land preparations, planting, weeding, harvesting, Planting, weeding, Lambing and kidding long rains harvest (green and dry) in June to July, Land preparation - September Land preparation, planting, weeding, Lambing, calving and kidding Seasonal Calendar
Illustration of drought Laikipia Kajiado Kilifi Kajiado
A dry river Bed Elephants scooping water from a dry river bed Severe Drought
Livestock watering in a drying river bed Early Effects of Drought
A shared water source for livestock and humans The water is untreated but consumed directly
Water point in North Eastern Kenya Boreholes must work throughout, 18-24hrs Women and children waiting for water
-Women trekking from water points -Long distances and long waiting hours at water points and untreated water
Water availability, distances, waiting time at source changed Increased dependence and pressure on permanent water sources
Wildlife grazing alongside livestock -A source of human–wildlife conflict -Encounters with fierce wild animals -Self defense and loss of life
-Migration towards common dry season grazing sites. -Potential hazards include: Encounter with diseases, conflict, raiders, and prolonged family separation, Livestock concentration sites in West Pokot district
Severe drought effects on livestock Loss of income, livelihood, Pastoralist dropouts, Public health problem
-Land preparation using oxen plough -Feeding & restocking necessary
Bad road conditions and insecurity hampers markets access
Increased number of children who are malnourished and at risk of Malnutrition Improve IYCF, immunization, micro-nutrient supplementation, De-worming, improve access to health services, scale-up selective feeding programs.
Concrete strategies for ASAL development Devpnt of reliable water sources Development of appropriate mechanisms for livestock improvement, mgt and marketing Adoption of appropriate agricultural techniques (DTC, Irrigation, Water harversting, Soil conservation), Capacity building at all levels Provision of necessary infrastructure Conflict managent and resolution Improve health and nutrition practices ( IYCF, primary health care practices, SFP, micronutrient supplimemts.
Long term measures Enhance sustainable development strategies beyond survival and subsistence livelihood strategies Empowering communities so that they can effectively identify, implement and sustain their development priorities. Fostering an enabling enviroment through appropriate policy, advocacy and reaserch. DSGs should ensure that there is interagency collaboration and genuine partnership in addressing community development and food security issues (GOK, UN agencies, NGOs, community organizations and leaders) Effective preparedness and mitigation measures to reduce vulnerability and impact of natrural and man made shocks Improve the effectiveness of response mechanisms