Presentation on theme: "What Problems are Associated with the SUPPLY of Energy?"— Presentation transcript:
What Problems are Associated with the SUPPLY of Energy?
Economic Peak Oil: The way in which cities and gadgets shall be designed in the future shall be directly affected by the availability of fuels and resources. Will technology be the catalyst that allows us to deal with a resource shortage? Source: Many believe peak oil production has been reached.
Source: Economic and belief in a technological solution?
Economic One major problem with energy is its cost. Fossil fuels are finite. With increasing demand and diminishing supplies prices must increase.
The Cost of Renewable Energy. The cost of naturally occurring renewable energy is a result of the cost of the collection apparatus multiplied by the efficiency of the power plant. (The mechanical power plant is a small fraction of the cost of the collection apparatus.) Source: https://matteranenergy.us/Joe%20Sixpack's%20Technology%20Page.html https://matteranenergy.us/Joe%20Sixpack's%20Technology%20Page.html Economic Alternative forms of energy need massive investment in research and development, and almost all forms seem expensive to build.
Source: blogspot.com/2007/06/glo bal-trends-in-sustainable- energy.html blogspot.com/2007/06/glo bal-trends-in-sustainable- energy.html The report says investment capital flowing into renewable energy climbed from $80 billion in 2005 to a record $100 billion in As well, the renewable energy sector's growth "although still volatile... is showing no sign of abating." These costs put a strain on developed and emerging economies, and may be beyond countries with limited economic development.
Economic "The other key message is that this is no longer an industry solely dominated by developed country industries. Close to 10 per cent of investments are in China with around a fifth in total in the developing world. We will need many sustained steps towards the de-carbonizing of the global economy. It is clear that in respect to renewables those steps are getting underway." Source: in-sustainable-energy.htmlhttp://climatechangeaction.blogspot.com/2007/06/global-trends- in-sustainable-energy.html
Economic Source: including-woodfuelhttp://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/solid-biomass-consumption- including-woodfuel Fuelwood is still a major source of heating and cooking energy in developing countries.
Environmental Map showing distribution of people depending on biomass fuels Map showing distribution of deaths from indoor smoke from solid fuels Source: oke/report_2 oke/report_2 Wood burning in confined domestic spaces is one of the greatest sources of ill health. Impaired lung capacity and cancer from smoke particles often lead to very low life expectancy.
Environmental Traditional forms of energy almost all depend on fossil fuels and lead to carbon output. But the global environment cannot withstand current levels of carbon emission. Source: vironmentallaw.co m/wp- content/uploads/20 09/02/world- carbon- emissions.gif vironmentallaw.co m/wp- content/uploads/20 09/02/world- carbon- emissions.gif
Environmental Carbon capture is in its infancy and prohibitively expensive. March 2010 Tokyo will start storing CO2 under the seabed at the rate of 100,000 tons per year. No word on final program costs, but in 2009, ¥3.3 billion ($35 million) has been allocated to the project. Source: storage-project-begins-operations.phphttp://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/04/first-retrofit-carbon-capture- storage-project-begins-operations.php
Environmental Cons of nuclear energy * Requires larger capital cost because of emergency, containment, radioactive waste and storage systems * Requires resolution of the long-term high level waste storage issue in most countries * Potential nuclear proliferation issue Source: energy-alternative-energy-option/ energy-alternative-energy-option/ Almost all alternative measures have environmental implications.
Political Hardly any country is self-sufficient in all the forms of energy it needs. The inhabitants of the windswept Danish island of Samso have achieved a decade-long target of self- sufficiency Source: e-change/the-little-island-and-its-big-green- victory html e-change/the-little-island-and-its-big-green- victory html
Political Most governments worry about depending on sources from other countries in case political disputes threaten supplies. The extraction rate once allowed the UK to be a leading exporter whilst also meeting growing local demand, extraction rates are now falling such that the country became a net importer in 2005 and some expect imports to account for 80% of gas supply as soon as 2014/15 The UK uses approximately 103 billion cubic meters of gas per year (bcm), more than any other country in Europe. Very roughly, by 2020 this consumption is expected to increase to ~130 bcm whilst extraction falls to less than 20 bcm leaving over 100 bcm shortfall. The fact that the UK supply of gas from the North Sea peaked in 2001 and is now falling rapidly is well known. RISK?RISK?
Political Governments need to harmonise actions to limit CO2 output, but finding agreement is not easy, and implementing policies can make them unpopular with their electorates. Source: 009/06/ php
Technological There can be ways of producing power to meet future demands but most of the technology needed has yet to be developed. Hydrogen car kits have become increasingly in demand recently with the sky rocketing costs of gasoline and the hopes of seeing them decrease becoming less and less realistic each day. Source:
Technological Only the most developed countries have the numbers of educated people, the research facilities and the funding to develop new technologies.
Technological The most commercially advanced WEC is the Pelamis attenuator, developed by Ocean Power Delivery, Ltd., based in Edinburgh, Scotland.The device a long, tubular structure floats on the surface of the ocean and converts incoming waves from all directions into electricity. e/bperry/geology303/geol303text.html Ideas for the technological solutions seem few at present, and many are untested
Technological Shale gas is considered an unconventional source as the gas may be attached to or "adsorbed" onto organic matter. The gas is contained in difficult-to-produce reservoirs that require special completion, stimulation and/or production techniques to achieve economic production. Technological advances have made gas more readily available – it is far less polluting than oil or coal and more reliable than renewable energy like wave or wind power - BP joins the dash for gas Sunday Telegraph Feb