Presentation on theme: "What Problems are Associated with the SUPPLY of Energy?"— Presentation transcript:
1What Problems are Associated with the SUPPLY of Energy?
2Economic Many believe peak oil production has been reached. Peak Oil: The way in which cities and gadgets shall be designed in the future shall be directly affected by the availability of fuels and resources. Will technology be the catalyst that allows us to deal with a resource shortage? Source:
3Economic and belief in a technological solution? Source:
4EconomicOne major problem with energy is its cost. Fossil fuels are finite. With increasing demand and diminishing supplies prices must increase.
5EconomicAlternative forms of energy need massive investment in research and development, and almost all forms seem expensive to build.The Cost of Renewable Energy.The cost of naturally occurring renewable energy is a result of the cost of the collection apparatus multiplied by the efficiency of the power plant. (The mechanical power plant is a small fraction of the cost of the collection apparatus.) Source: https://matteranenergy.us/Joe%20Sixpack's%20Technology%20Page.html
7EconomicSource:These costs put a strain on developed and emerging economies, and may be beyond countries with limited economic development.The report says investment capital flowing into renewable energy climbed from $80 billion in 2005 to a record $100 billion in As well, the renewable energy sector's growth "although still volatile ... is showing no sign of abating."
8EconomicSource:"The other key message is that this is no longer an industry solely dominated by developed country industries. Close to 10 per cent of investments are in China with around a fifth in total in the developing world. We will need many sustained steps towards the de-carbonizing of the global economy. It is clear that in respect to renewables those steps are getting underway."
9EconomicSource:Fuelwood is still a major source of heating and cooking energy in developing countries.
10EnvironmentalWood burning in confined domestic spaces is one of the greatest sources of ill health. Impaired lung capacity and cancer from smoke particles often lead to very low life expectancy.Map showing distribution of people depending on biomass fuelsMap showing distribution of deaths from indoor smoke from solid fuelsSource:
11EnvironmentalTraditional forms of energy almost all depend on fossil fuels and lead to carbon output. But the global environment cannot withstand current levels of carbon emission.Source:
12EnvironmentalCarbon capture is in its infancy and prohibitively expensive.March 2010 Tokyo will start storing CO2 under the seabed at the rate of 100,000 tons per year. No word on final program costs, but in 2009, ¥3.3 billion ($35 million) has been allocated to the project.Source:
13EnvironmentalAlmost all alternative measures have environmental implications.Cons of nuclear energy * Requires larger capital cost because of emergency, containment, radioactive waste and storage systems * Requires resolution of the long-term high level waste storage issue in most countries * Potential nuclear proliferation issueSource:
14PoliticalHardly any country is self-sufficient in all the forms of energy it needs.The inhabitants of the windswept Danish island of Samso have achieved a decade-long target of self-sufficiencySource:
15PoliticalMost governments worry about depending on sources from other countries in case political disputes threaten supplies.R I S K?The fact that the UK supply of gas from the North Sea peaked in 2001 and is now falling rapidly is well known.The extraction rate once allowed the UK to be a leading exporter whilst also meeting growing local demand, extraction rates are now falling such that the country became a net importer in 2005 and some expect imports to account for 80% of gas supply as soon as 2014/15 The UK uses approximately 103 billion cubic meters of gas per year (bcm), more than any other country in Europe. Very roughly, by 2020 this consumption is expected to increase to ~130 bcm whilst extraction falls to less than 20 bcm leaving over 100 bcm shortfall.
16PoliticalGovernments need to harmonise actions to limit CO2 output, but finding agreement is not easy, and implementing policies can make them unpopular with their electorates.Source:
20TechnologicalThere can be ways of producing power to meet future demands but most of the technology needed has yet to be developed.Hydrogen car kits have become increasingly in demand recently with the sky rocketing costs of gasoline and the hopes of seeing them decrease becoming less and less realistic each day.Source:
21TechnologicalOnly the most developed countries have the numbers of educated people, the research facilities and the funding to develop new technologies.
22TechnologicalIdeas for the technological solutions seem few at present, and many are untestedThe most commercially advanced WEC is the Pelamis attenuator, developed by OceanPower Delivery, Ltd., based in Edinburgh, Scotland.The device — a long, tubular structure — floats on the surface of the ocean and converts incoming waves from all directionsinto electricity.
23Technological“Technological advances have made gas more readily available – it is far less polluting than oil or coal and more reliable than renewable energy like wave or wind power” - BP joins the dash for gas Sunday Telegraph FebShale gas is considered an unconventional source as the gas may be attached to or "adsorbed" onto organic matter. The gas is contained in difficult-to-produce reservoirs that require special completion, stimulation and/or production techniques to achieve economic production.