Presentation on theme: "SECTION 1.4 Human activities affect the atmosphere."— Presentation transcript:
SECTION 1.4 Human activities affect the atmosphere.
The Ozone Layer: A Review 90% of all ozone is in the stratosphere 10% of all ozone is in the troposphere Ozone is extremely important because it is the only gas that absorbs UV radiation from the sun and protects the Earth from its damaging effects.
Human activities cause air pollution, increase greenhouse gases, and produce chemicals that destroy the ozone layer. (W/U) Think about when someone burns toast at home. Can you smell it sometimes, even if you’re in a different room? Why? Everyone that breathes in that air breathes in the smoke from the burnt toast. Is this air pollution? When we are outdoors, the wind blows air pollution just like the fan does at home. Can you smell, see or feel ALL types of air pollution? MOST pollution leaves the air or becomes thin enough to be harmless over time.
Types of Pollution Pollution is defined as smoke or other harmful materials that are added to the air. There are two types: Gas Carbon monoxide, methane, ozone, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides Some are naturally occurring in our atmosphere They are only considered pollutants when they are likely to cause harm Ex: Ozone is helpful in the stratosphere, harmful in the troposphere. Why? Particulates- tiny particles or droplets mixed into the air Easier to see than gas pollutants Smoke (contains particulates), dirt, pollen, dust, salt from the ocean
Sources of Pollution Natural Sources dust, pollen, soil, salt volcanoes and forest fires: gases and particles Human Activities fossil fuels: gases and particles unburned fuels: smog manufacturing: gases and particles tractors/construction equipment: dust and soil farming: fertilizers and pesticides
Fossil Fuels Most air pollution in cities and suburbs comes from burning of fossil fuels, or fuels formed from the remains of prehistoric animals (oil, gasoline, coal) Why? This can result in smog, the combination of smoke and fog, a newer type of air pollution Sunlight causes fumes from fossil fuels to react chemically. The reaction forms new pollutants (like ozone) and creates smog.
Effects of Pollution Health problems Irritation to eyes, nose, throat, and lungs Exercising in polluted air is dangerous. Why? Most dangerous for children, elderly, and people with asthma Damage to plants, buildings, and other outdoor objects Particulates being absorbed into the atmosphere can affect the weather Rain clears the air but brings the pollutants to the ground, lakes, and oceans
Sources of Greenhouse Gases Plant growth, forest fires, volcanoes, and other natural processes affect the amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The amounts of greenhouse gases affect temperatures on Earth. Temperatures affect plant growth and other processes that affect greenhouse gases. Sound familiar? What is this an example of? Most greenhouse gases occur naturally and have helped keep temperatures at a suitable range for life on Earth. Human activities are producing greenhouse gases faster than they can be removed from the atmosphere.
Global Warming The air contains about 30% more carbon dioxide than it did in the mid-1700’s. The level of CO2 is now increasing about 0.4% per year. Temperatures have risen in recent decades. It is estimated that the average global temp will rise another 1.4-5.8 degrees C by 2100. This will affect food, water, and other resources.
Reducing Greenhouse Gases In 1990, more than 1/3 of greenhouse gases on our planet came from the US. New technologies: new ways of heating and cooling buildings, transportation, making products using less energy. Energy alternatives to fossil fuels What can we do every day that can reduce greenhouse gases and prevent global warming?
Destroying the ozone layer Ozone is a pollutant at our level, but it is a protectant in the stratosphere. Certain chemicals disrupt the cycle in the ozone layer. Cholorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are in cooling systems, spray cans, and styrofoam. These chemicals break down in the stratosphere and release ozone-destroying chemicals.