2 Communicable Diseases Pathogens are living organisms or particles that can cause disease.A communicable disease is caused by pathogens that can be spread from person to person.
3 Communicable Disease Can spread in a short time Throughout schools Families
4 Types of PathogensViruses- microscopic particles that can reproduce inside living cells, leading to such illnesses as:ColdsFluHepatitis (types A, B, and C)
5 Types of PathogensBacteria- one-celled organisms that live almost everywhere on earth.Most are harmless or even helpful
6 Types of Pathogens Many kinds of bacteria cause diseases such as: Strep throatGonorrheaTuberculosisLyme DiseaseAnthrax
7 Types of PathogensFungi- living organisms that have some characteristics of plant cells but cannot make their own food.Fungi feed off living or non living organisms
8 Types of Pathogens Fungi Some forms cause disease such as: Athlete’s footRingworm
9 Types of PathogensProtozoa- One-celled organisms that are larger and more complex than bacteria.Not all protozoa cause disease.Some do, causing:MalariaToxoplasmosis
10 How They Enter the BodyPathogens can cause diseases when they enter a person’s body. They can enter in a number of ways, including:Direct ContactTouchingKissingOther close contact
11 Direct Contact Example: Can you think of an example of how a pathogen can be spread besides direct contact?
12 How They Enter the BodyIndirect Contact- contact with objects used by a person who has a pathogen such as:HandrailsDoorknobsChlorineEating utensilsThis is a common way of spreading a cold
13 Discussion QuestionHow might you contact a communicable disease on a trip to a shopping mall?
14 How They Enter the Body Using a needle that has infected blood on it Through tattooingPiercing body partsInjecting a drug
15 How They Enter the Body Inhaling air that has pathogens Eating food that has pathogensDrinking liquid that has pathogens
16 How They Enter the BodyBeing bitten by an animal or insect that has pathogens
17 Your Body’s Defense Against Communicable Disease Our bodies have special systems that help us from the invaders around us.Immune system is a system of body organs, tissues, and cells that destroys pathogens.- Provides 3 lines of defense that can stop many pathogens, before getting deep into the body.
18 Our First Line of Body Defense Inside of body openings (nose, mouth) we have mucus membranes.Mucus is a thick, sticky substance that traps some pathogensThe air passages where you breathe are lined with tiny hairs called ciliaCilia trap some pathogens, which you then exhale or sneeze out.
19 Our Second Line of Body Defenses This second line of defense can kill invading pathogens.These systems include:Acids in the stomach that can kill pathogensFever- a higher-than-normal body temperature that can kill pathogens
20 Our Second Line of Body Defenses Continued. . . White blood cells - fight pathogens that cause infection and illness.Some kinds of white blood cells form antibodiesAntibodies are protein substances in blood that can find, weaken, or destroy certain pathogens
21 Immunity- Third Line of Defense The body makes antibodies after it is exposed to a pathogenAntibodies remain to protect the person from future attacks by the pathogen.Immunity or resistance to a particular disease.
22 Immunity- Third Line of Defense Some diseases have deadly effects, so it is better to have a vaccine.Vaccines are dead or weakened pathogens given for immunity.Vaccine causes your body to make antibodies to fight the pathogen for a specific disease.
23 Immunity- Third Line of Defense Common childhood vaccines include:Hepatitis BPolioDiphtheria, pertussis,and tetanus (DPT)Measels, mumps, andrubellaVaricella (chicken pox)
24 Discussion QuestionWhat are ways that you can avoid catching or spreading a disease to others?
25 Avoiding Communicable Disease Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water:Before and after preparing foodBefore eatingAfter using the bathroom
26 Avoiding Communicable Disease Keep your fingers away from your eyes, nose and mouth.Touching objects and then touching the eyes and nose is a common way of spreading cold viruses.
27 Avoiding Communicable Disease Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze.Don’t share personal items, such as toothbrushes, drinking glasses, or bottles.