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Communicable Diseases

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Presentation on theme: "Communicable Diseases"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicable Diseases
Chapter: 8 Lesson: 1 Grade: 6

2 Communicable Diseases
Pathogens are living organisms or particles that can cause disease. A communicable disease is caused by pathogens that can be spread from person to person.

3 Communicable Disease Can spread in a short time Throughout schools

4 Types of Pathogens Viruses- microscopic particles that can reproduce inside living cells, leading to such illnesses as: Colds Flu Hepatitis (types A, B, and C)

5 Types of Pathogens Bacteria- one-celled organisms that live almost everywhere on earth. Most are harmless or even helpful

6 Types of Pathogens Many kinds of bacteria cause diseases such as:
Strep throat Gonorrhea Tuberculosis Lyme Disease Anthrax

7 Types of Pathogens Fungi- living organisms that have some characteristics of plant cells but cannot make their own food. Fungi feed off living or non living organisms

8 Types of Pathogens Fungi Some forms cause disease such as:
Athlete’s foot Ringworm

9 Types of Pathogens Protozoa- One-celled organisms that are larger and more complex than bacteria. Not all protozoa cause disease. Some do, causing: Malaria Toxoplasmosis

10 How They Enter the Body Pathogens can cause diseases when they enter a person’s body. They can enter in a number of ways, including: Direct Contact Touching Kissing Other close contact

11 Direct Contact Example:
Can you think of an example of how a pathogen can be spread besides direct contact?

12 How They Enter the Body Indirect Contact- contact with objects used by a person who has a pathogen such as: Handrails Doorknobs Chlorine Eating utensils This is a common way of spreading a cold

13 Discussion Question How might you contact a communicable disease on a trip to a shopping mall?

14 How They Enter the Body Using a needle that has infected blood on it
Through tattooing Piercing body parts Injecting a drug

15 How They Enter the Body Inhaling air that has pathogens
Eating food that has pathogens Drinking liquid that has pathogens

16 How They Enter the Body Being bitten by an animal or insect that has pathogens

17 Your Body’s Defense Against Communicable Disease
Our bodies have special systems that help us from the invaders around us. Immune system is a system of body organs, tissues, and cells that destroys pathogens. - Provides 3 lines of defense that can stop many pathogens, before getting deep into the body.

18 Our First Line of Body Defense
Inside of body openings (nose, mouth) we have mucus membranes. Mucus is a thick, sticky substance that traps some pathogens The air passages where you breathe are lined with tiny hairs called cilia Cilia trap some pathogens, which you then exhale or sneeze out.

19 Our Second Line of Body Defenses
This second line of defense can kill invading pathogens. These systems include: Acids in the stomach that can kill pathogens Fever- a higher-than-normal body temperature that can kill pathogens

20 Our Second Line of Body Defenses Continued. . .
White blood cells - fight pathogens that cause infection and illness. Some kinds of white blood cells form antibodies Antibodies are protein substances in blood that can find, weaken, or destroy certain pathogens

21 Immunity- Third Line of Defense
The body makes antibodies after it is exposed to a pathogen Antibodies remain to protect the person from future attacks by the pathogen. Immunity or resistance to a particular disease.

22 Immunity- Third Line of Defense
Some diseases have deadly effects, so it is better to have a vaccine. Vaccines are dead or weakened pathogens given for immunity. Vaccine causes your body to make antibodies to fight the pathogen for a specific disease.

23 Immunity- Third Line of Defense
Common childhood vaccines include: Hepatitis B Polio Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) Measels, mumps, and rubella Varicella (chicken pox)

24 Discussion Question What are ways that you can avoid catching or spreading a disease to others?

25 Avoiding Communicable Disease
Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and warm water: Before and after preparing food Before eating After using the bathroom

26 Avoiding Communicable Disease
Keep your fingers away from your eyes, nose and mouth. Touching objects and then touching the eyes and nose is a common way of spreading cold viruses.

27 Avoiding Communicable Disease
Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Don’t share personal items, such as toothbrushes, drinking glasses, or bottles.

28 Let’s Look inside Ralphie!

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