GG5 2003 2. Changes in the global pattern of urban growth 2000
2015 More megacities Mean location shifted south and east?
% of Population Living in Cities Nearly all the urban population takes place in LEDCs. They will account for 93% of a 2 billion increase in the global urban population between 2000 and 2030. Much of this growth will come in the worlds poorest countries, and many of the new urban dwellers, particularly women and their children, will be among the poorest people in the world.
Answer points…. more megacities rapid change from 1975 to 200 but slows down to 2015 location change – more in LEDCs changing amounts of urban population in different continents rapid urbanisation in Africa and Asia with slower growth in Europe and North America. QUESTION IS LOOKING FOR GROWTH AND PATTERN – rather than AMOUNTS
3. Imbalance between population and food supply. Outline demographic strategies to overcome this problem…. e.g. Malaysia – rapid industrialisation 1960 – 2000 Changing social structure Falling birth rate Role of women – careers Marriage later
e.g. Mauritius: The rate of population increase grew to between 3 percent and 4 percent in the 1950s, resulting, in large part, from the elimination of malaria, higher living standards, and improved health care. Worried that such high growth rates would impede the island's development and tax its resources, the government and private groups instituted extensive family planning efforts.
Family planning services were centralized under the administration of the Maternal and Child Health Care Division of the Ministry of Health in 1972, and together with the nongovernmental Action Familiale, which promoted natural techniques of birth control, reduced the country's birthrate significantly. The rate dropped to around 2 percent in the 1960s, and in the 1980s, the rate fell below 1 percent. These methods of birth control were used in 1985: birth control pills, 40 percent; barrier methods, 21 percent; natural methods, 16 percent; intrauterine device (IUD), 10 percent; Abortion is illegal, but estimates say there is one abortion for every live birth.
Community of Hope is a nonprofit in Washington DC that has been helping the citys low income and homeless adults and children for over 20 years. Charlotte Belfiore, Nutrition Education Advisor,with her volunteers at the Homeless Shelter in Washington County
Homelessness Lack of affordable housing Lack of government investment Plus Own knowledge and examples Location Poor quality housing Growth of single person households Growth of urban areas e.g. Swansea – Townhill, Hafod, SA1 redevelopment
Affordable Housing for the lower-income families of Austin has been a goal of the Mary Lee Foundation for over 20 years. Cuts in services e.g. substance abuse relief services Competition for land – rising prices Capital cities especially attractive to disadvantaged people
5ai Rapid urban growth putting pressure on infrastructure Both transport And waste disposal Problems of disposal of domestic waste in shanty towns No roads therefore no access to refuse collection Problems of illegal disposal – looks unsightly - damages environment Boys Pass Near Waste From Tannery in Dhaka
Illegally dumped rubbish attracts rats and birds and adds to health risk Lack of sewerage leads to surface latrines - Smell/unsightly - pollute water sources - Health risk diseases like cholera and dysentery - Diseases spread rapidly in overcrowded conditions
Traffic congestion - creates air pollution - creates noise pollution - reduces quality of life - city grinds to a halt - encourages counter- urbanisation of affluent - encourages businesses to relocate to edge of city - air pollution reduced from what it might have by because of sustainable use of rickshaws Air pollution in Bangladesh is being tackled by targetting the auto rickshaw. The government wants drivers to switch from using petrol or diesel to one of the country's most plentiful natural resources - gas.
Industrial pollution - from chimneys in brick works *See image - unsafe disposal of effluents / lack of monitoring & control - poor most affected as they work here - and shanty towns are built near workplaces - air pollution and noise - long term health problems – e.g. lungs
5aiiRapid urban growth – problems grow Floodplain location – floods regularly LEDC - Lack of money for environmental schemes Lack of monitoring / policing to control illegal disposal Lack of infrastucture to dispose of waste safely River is polluted by effluent Poor people cant afford to move Bound to be noisy day and night
5b Producing nearly 3,500 tonnes of garbage a day, the Bangladeshi capital, Dhaka, has a huge problem with waste disposal. It is one of the most crowded cities in the world and space is at a premium. Around half of this garbage is not collected because the city council lacks the cash and the manpower. "Initially, the work was a bit smelly," she said. "But now I enjoy it. I receive Taka 950 per month as salary. She works at Waste Concern
Composting heaps in Dhaka, Bangladesh (Waste Concern 5b Community Based Composting Project (Waste Concern) Eighty percent of Dhaka's garbage - such as food remains - is biodegradable and organic. Waste Concern arranged for some of it to be taken to one of several processing centres, where it is turned into compost. Most of Dhaka's waste is biodegradable "We have to look at waste as a resource. Our culture says we don't throw away things easily", he said.
COMMUNITY BASED SCHEME Involves composting Lower level technology Involves communities Involves cheap labour Sustainable Positive environmental effects Cheap organic fertiliser Waste Transformed into Income Families in five communities in Dhaka, are turning household waste into cold hard cash. Using home composting kits distributed through an initiative supported by the UN Development Programme, more than 1,800 families in poor areas of the country's capital are converting kitchen scraps to compost, which is then sold to increase their incomes. Scraps previously dumped in the street, where they were left to rot, are now placed in a barrel punctured with tiny holes to allow for air flow. The waste transforms into compost after three months, when it is removed from a small door at the base of the barrel. The compost collected from these families is regularly sold to a national fertilizer company.
Western Centric - Energy Recovery Scheme There is a crucial demand for disposal of the waste of densely populated Dhaka City in a systematic manner. The waste could provide a means to produce energy, particularly much desired electricity. Waste incinerator Dioxins into the air Scrap metal extraction Electricity to national grid
Energy Recovery Western Centric Higher technology More expensive equipment Fewer workers but better paid Produces pollution – dioxins Favours wealthier residents And organised business Delivery of waste-heat recovery boiler to Bangladesh IHI has completed the construction of two 62.5t/h waste heat recovery boilers for the 90,000kW/h electric power plant at the Sylhet Power Station of the Bangladesh Electric Board. The power station entered commercial operation in July 1995