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K.I. 4 There is a range of arguments for the conservation or development (exploitation) of the biome. Evaluation of the level of sustainability of the.

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Presentation on theme: "K.I. 4 There is a range of arguments for the conservation or development (exploitation) of the biome. Evaluation of the level of sustainability of the."— Presentation transcript:


2 K.I. 4 There is a range of arguments for the conservation or development (exploitation) of the biome. Evaluation of the level of sustainability of the utilisation of the vegetation of the biome needs to link: A) Social B) Economic C) Environmental including (climatic) Costs and Benefits

3 To save the Amazon Forest it is imperative to establish the supremacy of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity over the World Trade Organization Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement ENVIRONMENT v. ECONOMIC Conservation over Development Any development should be SUSTAINABLE?

4 Ecological Reserve e.g The Reserva Ecolôgica do Xixuaú - Xiparinã is situated on the right hand bank of the Rio Jauaperí which marks the border between the Brazilian states of Amazonas and Roraima. The reserve measures 172.000 hectares and is the only private nature reserve of this type in the Brazilian Amazon. The reserve consists entirely of primary forest and is home to many species of animal in danger of extinction elsewhere in the Amazon. The Brazilian giant otter, manatees, both species of river dolphin, black caiman, a number of species of turtle, snakes like the coral and the anaconda and a multitude of fish. The jungle is inhabited by monkeys, marmosets, tamanduas, sloths, ocelot, jaguar, tapirs, anteaters, armadillos, peccaries, pacas, etc. ENVIRONMENTAL

5 Justino Filho da Souza Community Xixuau SOCIAL Justino is the Director of the Xixuau-Xiparina Reserve

6 Esta e Elielma uma moradora na reserva do Xixuau. An indigenous girl called Elielma who lives in the Xixuau reserve. SOCIAL

7 Agroforestry growing ground crops under tree cover. Trees also used e.g. brazil nuts. Soil erosion reduced. Promote the use of agroforestry - Agroforestry is the practice of growing trees with agricultural crops or livestock on the same parcel of land. Well-known examples of agroforestry are windbreaks, hedgerows, and mixed home gardens where trees form an integral part of the property ECONOMIC

8 Plantation style Trees in rows Regular spacing ECONOMIC

9 Polyculture style More haphazard appearance ECONOMIC

10 Sustainable Development on the Rio Jauaperi – Ecotourism The Associacao Amazonia began a limited ecotourism activity in 1995. Small groups of tourists are brought to the reserve where they stay in the Maloca, the Indian style lodge built for this purpose. Recently request for trips has increased and the range of customers is extending into sports fishermen, bird watchers, wildlife photographers, journalists etc. ECONOMIC

11 Extractive reserve – belongs to the state. No trees felled Local people have fishing rights And limited farming rights And can collect forest products e.g rubber Brazil nuts Specimen plants for scientific research ECONOMIC

12 The ECONOMIC value of a forest extends far beyond the value of its timber. Traditionally, indigenous peoples have harvested a wide variety of produce from the forest without having to destroy its ecosystem. Rubber, fibres, fruits, seeds, flowers, nuts and honey are just some of the many examples of non-timber forest products.

13 How does the FSC work? The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international, non-profit association founded in 1993 through the collaborative efforts of more than one hundred participants representing economic, social, indigenous and environmental interests. ECONOMIC The FSC issues certificates for well managed forests and was created to allow corporate buyers and the public to identify products coming from responsible forest management…

14 Eighty percent of all logging in the Amazon is illegal, according to figures compiled by Greenpeace Non-sustainable Developments …

15 Video evidence documents IBAMA officials accused of accepting a bribe to log a Brazilian forest area Three forest guardians working for the Brazilian government were suspended from their jobs and face a prison sentence after being filmed taking bribes from an Amazon timber company.



18 Mineral wealth Ouro = gold Sn = tin Diamante = diamonds Yanomami Homelands Ranching area

19 The deforestation by settlers and cattle ranchers has provoked erosion on a disastrous scale. Roraima, Brazil, 1998.

20 Forest Fires. Tropical rainforest. The Amazon, Brazil, Roraima, south of Boa Vista Project Upgrade and improve traffic conditions on the highways which transport grains grown the West of Brazil. Upgraded section of BR-364 in Roraima state

21 While Brazil's Yanomami Indians have been granted permanent and exclusive rights to occupy and use their land, there is enormous resistance from cattle ranchers and the timber and mining industries to what they see as "giving away" valuable land to Indians.

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