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CompareGive a point by point identification of similarities and differences or contrasts. There are usually marks reserved for the explicit use of comparative.

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Presentation on theme: "CompareGive a point by point identification of similarities and differences or contrasts. There are usually marks reserved for the explicit use of comparative."— Presentation transcript:

1 CompareGive a point by point identification of similarities and differences or contrasts. There are usually marks reserved for the explicit use of comparative adjectives e.g. however, whereas, larger than, smaller, steeper, less densely. ContrastGive a point by point identification of differences only. DescribeIdentify distinctive features and give descriptive, factual detail. This is one of the most widely used command words. Unless the question says describe and explain, never explain (e.g. writing because) as there will be no credit given. This is a very easy way to waste time; especially where resource based questions such as G1 and G2 part (a) questions ask for a description that may ask to set out the main patterns, trends, characteristics, distributions, effects, relationships DefineGive the precise meaning of a term. The question structure of AS and A2 units does not allow short commands of this type. However, where the question uses specialist terms such as asylum seeker, it is good practice to start with a definition before moving on to the body of the answer. This will help to avoid confusion and provide a clear focus for both you and the examiner. DiscussDescribe and explain relevant points and build up a balanced argument with supporting detail. At AS the level of detail and discussion will be guided by the mark and time allocation and the level of discussion expected will be less than at A2. EvaluateEvaluate asks the candidate to give an overall assessment of value with a justification of conclusions or viewpoints. At AS this command will be used in relation to questions about the enquiry process in G1 and G2 Question 3 (c), or where the term evaluate is used in the Key Question or Content columns of the Specification. ExplainGive reasons or causes. Show an understanding of how or why something has occurred. IdentifyPoint out and name from a number of possibilities. The command will be used in conjunction with describe or explain. IllustrateRefer to a case study or example. It does not mean draw, although appropriate maps or diagrams enhance case studies. JustifyExplain why your choice is better than the possible options. OutlineGive a brief summary of the main characteristics. Where questions ask for an outline of the main reasons then a summary explanation is needed. Use the information in Figure X to describe Your answer must be based on the resources provided and have a direct reference to the resource. Suggest reasons whyPut forward a plausible explanation from your wider geographical understanding and not just actual knowledge. Suggest and justifyPut forward an idea and explain your choice. With the aid of an annotated Annotation requires labelling plus some explanation or extended comment on or near the diagram.

2 Outline 2 impacts of migration on a country or region that exports its population. (10) Jan 2010.

3 Mark Scheme:

4 Level 3 8-10 marks Impacts are clearly outlined using specific information Level 2: 4-7 marks Impacts are adequate, but with limited specific or good generic information Level 1: 0-3 marks Impacts are generalised with little depth or illustration

5 Impacts on Lesotho and South Africa

6 Lesotho Economic 22.5% GDP $0.3 Billion Aids amongst migrant workers – men and women Social. http://www.irinnews.or g/pdf/pn/plusnews- media-fact-file- migrant-workers.pdf http://www.irinnews.or g/pdf/pn/plusnews- media-fact-file- migrant-workers.pdf ho0s_land_poverty/html/10.stm ho0s_land_poverty/html/10.stm In Pictures - Lesotho 37% reported a family member working in South Africa, 26 percent reported a family member permanently settled there, 21 percent had sought medical care there. Mining. MAIN SOURCE: http://www.migrationinformat D=891 http://www.migrationinformat D=891 Their numbers declined dramatically since the late 1990s onward initially as a result of mechanization and relative stagnation in gold mining, and later partly because of a preference for South African labour. there has been a constant and debilitating brain drain from Lesotho to South Africa. This emigration includes skilled workers, especially those in professional and technical fields. some former migrant workers became legal permanent residents of South Africa in the late 1990s, following changes in South African law. Some older migrants returned with savings. More recently growing numbers of clandestine migrants have attempted to find work in South Africa, especially in farming and domestic service and illegal activities. A high proportion of these migrants are believed to be female.

7 South Africa

8 (White) South African Migration to English speaking countries Impacts on South Africa of the Brain Drain Receiving area impacts in blue Fully trained Professional eg. Air Traffic Controllers Labour shortages – Johannesburg airport 20 vacancies in 2007. 5 year training time ECONOMIC 800,000 SA could claim UK passports. Fill skill shortages in MEDCs so get Visas Mainly to English speaking countries – no language barrier. 25% to UK 18% Australia (common culture eg rugby cricket) 300,000 SA left in 2001 – exodus of skills. 20% of SA professionals have left – retraining of professionals cost ECONOMIC Brain drain costs SA £159 million a year ECONOMIC SA faces a real skills shortage – but may create opportunities for Black South Africans to up skill to replace white emigrants ECONOMIC +ve and SOCIAL +ve There may be a knock on effect to neighbouring poorer LEDCs eg Lesotho whose skilled labour may take better paid jobs in SA replacing jobs vacated by emigrants ECONOMIC No real risk to migrants safety in movement – perceived risk greater to stay. May make problems worse locally for those who stay SOCIAL No drain on resources of receiving countries – migrants are affluent and will work paying taxes and will not need Social Services support.

9 Other case studies As we meet them you could make your own summary notes / spider diagrams. You are encouraged by the WJEC and by me to research your own examples at any stage.

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