2What links the following? FranceNorwayArgentinaNazi Germany, betweenChileAustraliaAll are overseas territories of the listed countries in AntarcticaNazi Germany is the odd one out, because its claim no longer exists.Then complete mapping exercise.United KingdomWhich is the odd one out?New Zealand
3Why was the United States allowed to do this? Who owns the South Pole?Scott-Amundsen Research Station.In reality, no one country. The United States does maintain a scientific base at the South Pole. This has been the cause of much discussion, particularly over the neutrality of the continent during the Cold War.Why was the United States allowed to do this?
4Lines should be drawn from the South Pole. Mapping the contested continent.Lines should be drawn from the South Pole.FranceAdelie Land
7What do you notice? Anyone missing? From the previous exercise you should have noticed thatAntarctica is a contested continent.That there are significant overlaps on the territory claimed.Anyone missing?The United States and Russia, both reserve the right to claim territory if they see fit. China has not delivered a position on the subject.United StatesRussiaChina
8Why the fuss?There are a number of reasons why countries may wish to have territorial claimsAntarctica is rich in natural resources. Presently mineral resources can not be exploited, though could this be a possibility in the future.(?)It is a unique environment to collect scientific data. The scientific community is highly competitive, it may give a country the ‘edge’ over another, and result in economic success.It provides the country with a strategic position in the Southern Hemisphere, think the United Kingdom and the Falklands Islands.National pride and history. Is there any point in the United Kingdom maintaining a claim to Antarctica?
9US Stamp celebrating the 1961 treaty. How is Antarctica managed?With a number of different countries all claiming territory in Antarctica, and others wanting to claim territory, a system was needed.The Antarctica Treaty System was agreed and signed in 1961.It is basically a number of Treaties that have been agreed on by signatory countries, that state how the continent should be managed and developed.Diamond ranking exercise could be done here.Homework, produce a set of five stamps representing articles from the treaty.US Stamp celebrating the 1961 treaty.
10Signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. Any patterns here?
11Homework Check out Ebay! Create a set of five postage stamps to celebrate the United Kingdom’s signatory of the Antarctic Treaty.Each stamp should represent an article from the Treaty.Remember to include the Queen’s head!You can draw your stamps, or produce them via ICT.
12Antarctica- Resource Exploitation. Focus on Minerals. Antarctica potentially has a huge number of natural resources that can be exploited.A natural resource is from the environment and can be exploited by humans to their advantage. It has value.One such natural resource found in Antarctica is oil.But there is a moratorium on exploiting mineral resources under the Madrid Protocol. It was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, this bans mining, but is due for review in 2041.Resource mapping exercise can be used here.What other resources are there?
13Random Resources. Krill Chromium Small, clear, shrimp like organisms that feed on plankton. Krill is Norwegian for ‘whale food’. Used by the Japanese as a foodstuff, but also widely used as bait by anglers and food in aquariums.ChromiumUsed in a variety of industrial processes, including steel production, tanning and as an anti-corrosive
14Would there be any point in extracting minerals from Antarctica? Is it worth it?Would there be any point in extracting minerals from Antarctica?What problems would there be?Extracting the minerals from below the thousands of metres of ice would be an issue.The quality and abundance of some of the minerals, means extraction would not be cost-effective.Machinery is likely to malfunction in the extreme temperatures.It would be difficult to import workers and machinery, and export the minerals in winter conditions.The working conditions would be damn awful!Other problems?
15Conditions that may lead to exploitation Is it worth it?FutureBut conditions in the future may make resource exploitation cost-effective.Conditions that may lead to exploitationIf natural resources run out, their price will increase, this may make drilling for say oil, more cost-effective.Many of the world’s natural resources are located in politically unstable regions, not a problem in Antarctica! (?)Global warming is likely to have a huge impact on the continent. Melting ice sheets would make extraction easier and people would be less concerned about the environmental impact (?)Changing climate conditions would also make working on the continent, potentially easier.Next stop KrillOther reasons?