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Words for Production 1. introductory adj. 序論的,引導的; 入門的,初步的 This book includes an introductory chapter ( 章 ) that explains the goals of the research. For.

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Presentation on theme: "Words for Production 1. introductory adj. 序論的,引導的; 入門的,初步的 This book includes an introductory chapter ( 章 ) that explains the goals of the research. For."— Presentation transcript:

1 Words for Production 1. introductory adj. 序論的,引導的; 入門的,初步的 This book includes an introductory chapter ( 章 ) that explains the goals of the research. For students who are interested in the human mind and human behavior, an introductory course in psychology can be a good choice.

2 1. introductory adj. 1) 序論的,引導的 2) 入門的,初步的 3) ( 新產品 ) 特價的 1. The speaker made an introductory remark before giving her speech. ( 開場白,前言 ) 2. In the introductory class, the swimming coach will teach the kids how to hold their breath underwater. 3. By the end of July, customers can buy this new flavor of ice cream at an introductory price. ( 試銷價 )

3 以 “-tion” 結尾的名詞,字尾改成 “­ory” ,可形成 表「屬於 … 的,與 … 有關的」之形容詞,例: satisfaction → satisfactory 良好的 explanation → explanatory 解釋的 preparation → preparatory 準備的 congratulation → congratulatory 祝賀的

4 2. essay n. [C] a short piece of writing by a student on a specific subject ( 學生寫的 ) 短文,文章 For homework, each of us has to write an essay on George Bernard Shaw.

5 2. essay n. [C] 1) ( 學生寫的 ) 短文,文章 2) 論說文,小品文 1-1. The students were asked to write an essay about the life of a famous poet. 1-2. The professor told us to write an essay on the role of Winston Churchill in WWII. 2-1. The reporter wrote a critical essay on the influence of GM food on people’s lives. 2-2. After reading some essays on the customs of the Inuit, I had a general picture about their daily lives.

6 Words for Production 3. mass n. sing. (the ~ ) most of the people in a group, a society, or a country; n. [C] (usu. sing.) a large quantity of something 大多數 ( 的人 ) ;大量,許多 The idea of raising fuel prices is strongly opposed by the mass of the people in the country. There is a mass of information about healthy diet in this magazine. You will learn a lot after you read it. mess n. 一團亂 the majority

7 3. mass n. 1) sing. (the ~ ) 大多數 ( 的人 ) 2) [C] (usu. sing.) 大量,許多 3) [C] 一塊,團 4) [C] (pl.) (the masses) 群眾,平民百姓 1. For the mass of people, having a high salary is the main priority when it comes to getting a job. 2. A mass of tourists swarms into the scenic spot on holidays. 3. There was a mass of books, files, and papers on Mr. O’Conner’s desk.

8 mass n. 3) [C] 一塊,團 4) [C] (pl.) (the masses) 群眾,平民百姓 4. Look at the dark masses of clouds in the sky. It is going to rain apparently. 5. To win an election, a candidate must drum up the support of the masses first.

9 mass adj. 大眾的,大量的 Mass production of cars has lowered the price. ( 大量生產 ) Mass education is of critical importance to a country’s development. ( 民眾教育 ) mass transit 大眾運輸 the mass media 大眾傳播媒體 mass murderer 謀殺多人的兇手

10 4. desperation n. [U] the feeling of having no hope 絕望,走投無路 In desperation, the man jumped out of the window to escape from the burning apartment.

11 4. desperation n. [U] 絕望,走投無路 Jason had no choice but to turn to crime out of sheer desperation. ( 完全絕望之下 ) In desperation, the poor man sold his family heirloom at a low price to pay off his debt. ( 走投無路 )

12 desperate adj. 絕望的 Having waited outside the emergency room for hours, the patient’s family are getting desperate.

13 desperate adj. 1) 絕望的 2) ( 決定或行動 ) 孤注一擲的 1-1 With the rescue time running out, families of the mudslide victims are becoming increasingly desperate. 1-2 With the patient’s condition worsening, his desperate family are discussing his funeral. 2 The hostage had made a desperate attempt/effort to escape.

14 desperate adj. 3) ( 情況 ) 危急的 4) 極想要 … 的,很渴望 … 的 3-1. The material girl decided to abandon her boyfriend when he was financially desperate. 3-2. More often than not, orphans are in desperate need of love and care. 4-1. The worker was desperate for a holiday after ten days of work. ( 非常想要 …) 4-2. I am desperate to share the good news with everyone. ( 極想 …)

15 desperately adv. 1) 絕望地,拼命地 2) 極度地 (= extremely) 1)  The starving beggar looked around desperately for something to eat. 2)  Aiden’s job is desperately important to him because he has a big family to support.

16 Words for Production 5. valuable adj. ( 時間 ) 寶貴的;很有用的, 很重要的;貴重的,很值錢的 If we plan out the meeting, valuable time can be saved. Ms. Fuller has gained a lot of valuable experience and learned several useful lessons from her job. The rich man locked all his valuable jewelry in a safety deposit box ( 保險箱 ) in the bank.

17 5. valuable adj. 1) ( 時間 ) 寶貴的 2) 很有用的,很重要的 1-1. The businessman tries to work efficiently so as to save some valuable time. 1-2. In order not to ruin your valuable vacation, you should make detailed plans in advance. 2-1. My advice proved valuable because it prevented Evelyn from making a fatal mistake. ( 證明是有用的 ) 2-2. The experiences of the older generation are usually valuable to the young.

18 5. valuable adj. 3) 貴重的,很值錢的 (↔ worthless, valueless) 3-1. The rich lady wore a valuable piece of jewelry whose cost roughly equaled the price of a Mercedes. 3-2. The millionaire donated his valuable collection of paintings to the municipal museum.

19 costly 用來修飾豪華的、高貴的物品,通常 有暗示奢侈的意思; expensive 用來修飾某物品價格過高,甚至 超出了實際的價值; precious 常用於修飾感情方面,表示無法用 金錢計算的人或物。 priceless 和 invaluable 都是用來表示「極為 珍貴的,無法用任何方式來估計其價值 的」。

20 valuables n. pl. 貴重物品  You had better put your valuables in a safe so that a thief would have difficulty taking them away.  Mr. Wang’s house was broken in and all the valuables inside were stolen.

21 value vt. 1) 重視 2) 估價 1-1. The liberal ruler values his people’s opinions very much. 1-2. Kelly values her teacher’s advice and always follows it. 2. The broker valued the luxurious house at ten million dollars. ( 將 … 估價為 …)

22 value n. [U] 1) 價值 2) 重要性 1) The value of the antique vase is going up gradually. 2) This research was of great value to doctors working with this disease. ( 很重要 ) market value 市值 street value 黑市價格 face value 郵票、鈔票等的面額

23 value 指的是某人願意為某物所付出的 金錢; price 指的是購買某物或享用某服務所 需支付的金額; cost 指的是從事某事或為了達成某事 所要付出的代價,並不侷限於金錢方 面; expense 指的則是花在某物上的費用。

24 Let’s read!

25 Words for Production 6. procrastination n. [U] the act of delaying something that should have already been done, usually because someone doesn’t want to do it 拖延,延宕 Procrastination is the main reason why Simon never finishes his assignments on time.

26 6. procrastination n. [U] 拖延,延宕  Procrastination makes people do yesterday’s work today, and today’s work tomorrow. 與時間管理相關的字詞 punctuality 準時 feasibility 可行性 self-discipline 自律能力 ahead of schedule ( 進度 ) 提前 on/behind schedule 進度如期 / 落後

27 procrastinate vi. 拖延,延宕 When faced with important tasks, we should take immediate action rather than procrastinate.

28 procrastinate vi. 拖延,延宕 (= put off)  Mostly, we procrastinate when faced with something we don’t want to do, like going to a dentist.

29 procrastinator n. [C] ( 做事 ) 拖延的 人 Don’t be such a procrastinator. Begin your English essay now.

30 procrastinator n. [C] ( 做事 ) 拖延的人  Ed is the last person to be called a procrastinator; he always gets things done right away.

31 Words for Production 7. extreme adj. 極大的,極度的 very great in degree Please handle this box with extreme care. There are wine glasses in it.

32 7. extreme adj. 1) 極大的,極度的 2) 罕見的,極特殊的 3) 偏激的 (↔ moderate) 1)  The floor being wet, you should walk with extreme care.  When Ian fell off the tree, he first felt extreme pain in his head and then fainted. 2)  Absence from the meeting is only allowed in extreme circumstances. ( 在極其特殊的情況下 ) 3)  Chandler is an irrational person who always gives extreme opinions.

33 extreme sports 極限運動 ( 如滑板、高空彈跳 ) extreme athlete 從事極限運動的運動員

34 extremely adv. 非常地,極端地 My dad found it extremely difficult to dance a tango because of the complex dance steps.

35 extremely adv. 非常地,極端地  I felt extremely guilty about lying to my parents.

36 extreme n. [C] 極端,極度 Rose eats vegetables only. At the other extreme, her brother can’t live without meat.

37 extreme n. [C] 極端,極度  In Africa, one can witness extremes of great wealth and great poverty.  Luke has found a middle path between the extremes of success and failure.  To make a lot of money in a short time, the businessman went to extremes. ( 採取極端的手段或行動 )  Extremes meet. ( 【諺】物極必反。 ) in the extreme (fml.) 極度,非常  The weatherman strongly advised people to wear winter coats because it was cold in the extreme outside.

38 go to the opposite extreme 走向另一個極端 (= go from one extreme to the other)  Sally used to be positive, but now she has gone to the opposite extreme. range between two extremes 呈現兩種極端  The public’s views on abortion ranged between two extremes.

39 8. proportion [pr1`porS1n] n. [C] a part of something; n. [U] the relationship between two things in amount, size, etc. 部分;比例 A large proportion of the students in this school like to wear school uniforms, while the rest do not. There are sixty men and thirty women working in the office. The proportion of males to females is two to one.

40 8. proportion n. 1) [C] 部分 2) [U] 比例 1)  A large proportion of the students enroll in college after graduation. Few of them go to work. 2)  Dora was selected as the carnival queen because her features were perfectly in proportion. ( 勻稱 )

41 8. proportion n. 2) [U] 比例 2)  The payment is in proportion to/with the work done, not in proportion to the time spent. ( 與 … 成比例 ) out of proportion with/to 與 … 不相稱  The dog’s big head is out of proportion with/to its tiny body.

42 Words for Production 9. panic n. [U][C] (usu. sing.) a sudden, strong feeling of anxiety or fear that makes someone unable to think calmly or clearly 恐慌,驚慌 The residents of the town were in a state of panic when the mudslide occurred. When Jane gets into a panic, she forgets what she wants to say.

43 9. panic n. [U][C] (usu. sing.) 恐慌,驚慌  All the customers felt panic when the fire alarm at the supermarket went off.  When the fire broke out, everyone ran out of the building in a panic. ( 驚慌之下 )  Paul got into/in a panic in the house on fire and forgot to call the fire department. ( 十分驚慌 ) panic attack 恐慌症 panic room 避難室 panic button 緊急按鈕 panic buying/selling 瘋狂搶購 / 拍賣

44 fear 用來強調極端害怕,以致不願面 對所懼怕的人或情形; fright 指突然的驚 嚇,通常是暫時性的; alarm 指突然察覺 到危險逼近而感到驚慌; panic 形容歇斯 底里的恐懼,通常是壓抑的情緒或莫名的 恐慌; terror 表示可能導致驚慌的恐怖; horror 則是指伴隨著恐懼而來的反感或厭 惡。

45 panic vi. (panicked, panicked, panicking) 驚慌失措 Don’t panic during an earthquake. If you are indoors, keep calm and stay away from windows.

46  panic vi. 驚慌失措  The mother started to panic when she saw her son’s arm bleed.  People in the movie theater panicked when someone shouted “Fire!”  panicky adj. 受驚嚇的,恐慌的 (= hysterical)  Don’t get panicky! Everything is under control.

47 Words for Production 10. irrational adj. not using clear thinking or reason 不理性的,不講理的 I know this sounds ridiculous, but I have an irrational fear of dogs.

48 10. irrational adj. 不理性的,不講理的 (= unreasonable, ↔ rational)  My grandmother has never traveled abroad because she has an irrational fear of taking planes. ( 沒來由的恐懼 )  I can’t believe that Felix made such an irrational decision. He should have looked before he leaped.

49 字首 “ir­” 有「非、不」的意思,通常置於 以字母 “r­” 為首的形容詞之前,表達與該 形容詞相反的語意,例:  regular → irregular 不規則的  relevant → irrelevant 不相關的  resistible → irresistible 不可抵抗的  responsible → irresponsible 不負責任的

50 rational adj. ( 行為、思想等 ) 基於理性的,合理的 The doctor’s explanation for my headaches seemed to be rational, so I chose to take his advice.

51 rational adj. 1) ( 行為、思想等 ) 基於理性的,合理的 2) ( 人 ) 理性的,講理的 (= reasonable) 1)  There must be a perfectly rational explanation for what happened. 2)  A rational person always thinks carefully before making any decisions.

52 Words for Production 11. tick vi. (of a clock or a watch) to make a short, light sound every second ( 鐘或錶 ) 滴答作響 It was so quiet in the room that I could hear my clock ticking.

53 tick away/by/past ( 時間 ) 流逝,過去  Isaiah had to get to the train station by noon, and the minutes were ticking away/by/past. 11. tick vi. ( 鐘或錶 ) 滴答作響 (= tick away)  Gabriel couldn’t fall asleep because the old clock ticked loudly.

54 tick sb off 斥責、責備某人 (= tell sb off)  The teacher ticked the students off when she found them nodding off in class again. what makes sb tick (infml.) 使某人這麼做的原因  Jane insists on taking a shower three times a day. I think I will never understand what makes her tick.

55 Words for Production 12. furthermore adv. (fml.) in addition to something that has just been mentioned 此外,再者 The apartment was too big for Gladys. Furthermore, she couldn’t afford the rent.

56 12. furthermore adv. (fml.) 此外,再者 (= moreover)  The house is too small for my family; furthermore, it is far from downtown.

57 Words for Production 13. pit n. [C] a large, deep hole in the ground 大洞,深坑 Watch out for the pit in the forest. If you fall into it, you won’t be able to climb out.

58 13. pit n. [C] 大洞,深坑  The girl fell into a pit and was unable to climb out on her own because it was so deep.

59 Words for Production 14. trap vt. (trapped, trapped, trapping) to be unable to escape from an unpleasant situation; to prevent someone from escaping from a dangerous place 使無力改變,使陷入困境; 使困於 ( 危險環境 ) Mr. Fleming felt trapped in his job. He thought it was boring, but he needed the pay to support his family. In Taiwan, when there are people trapped in the fire, we call 119.

60 14. trap vt. 1) 使無力改變,使陷入困境 2) 使困於 ( 危險環境 ) 3) 以陷阱捕捉 4) 使陷入圈套 1)  Some single parents feel trapped in the role of father or mother.  If Lucy keeps lying, she’ll be trapped in her lies and end up losing all her friends. 2)  The two climbers were trapped in the mountain owing to the heavy snow. 3)  The hunters tried to trap animals in the woods. 4)  The old lady was trapped into giving all her money to the con artist.

61 trap n. [C] ( 難以逃脫的 ) 困境 Today, more and more graduates are caught in the unemployment trap. It’s time the government did something about this.

62 trap n. [C] 1) ( 難以逃脫的 ) 困境 2) 圈套,陷阱 1)  Marriage seems to be a trap to Rebecca. She can no longer do whatever she likes.  Many recent graduates have fallen into the trap of being well educated but underpaid. ( 落入陷阱 ) 2)  A beautiful woman set a trap for Thomas, trying to cheat him out of his fortune. ( 設下陷阱 )

63 rat trap 捕鼠器 speed trap 超速監視區 death trap 危險車輛,危險建築 fire trap 火災時難以逃生的建築物 tourist trap 旅遊陷阱,敲遊客竹槓的地方

64 Words for Production 15. rob vt. (robbed, robbed, robbing) to take away something that someone deserves or needs, such as a quality, an ability, an opportunity, etc.; to steal money or property from a person, a bank, or a store, usually using violence 剝奪,使喪 失 ( 某人應得或所需之物 ) ;搶劫,盜取 The car accident made the little girl an orphan and robbed her of a happy childhood. On his way home from work, the unfortunate man was robbed of his car, cell phone, and money.

65 15. rob vt. 1) 剝奪,使喪失 ( 某人應得或所需之物 ) (= deprive) 2) 搶劫,盜取 1)  The kidnapper robbed the victim of his freedom, and of his dignity as well.  Jack’s consuming passion for Lora had robbed him of his reason. ( 使某人喪失 … ) 2)  That man was accused of robbing a bank and injuring several bank clerks.  The masked man robbed the lady of her money and then ran away. ( 搶奪 )

66 rob 後方可接「人」或「地方」,如 rob a man 或 rob a bank ,但是不可搭配 「錢」或「物品」作受詞;若要表示 「搶某人的錢」則需以 rob sb of sth 表示, 其他類似的用法還有 deprive sb of sth 、 rid sb/sth of sth 、 strip sb/sth of sth 等。

67 rob sb blind (infml.) 將某人洗劫一空  The gangsters robbed the drunken man blind and left him in the wild. rob Peter to pay Paul 拆東牆,補西牆  Dean borrowed some money from me to return it to Elisa. What he did was just (to) rob Peter to pay Paul.

68 robber n. [C] 搶劫犯,強盜 The robbers rushed into the store and forced the clerk to give them all the cash she had.

69 robber n. [C] 搶劫犯,強盜  The robbers killed an old man and took all his money.

70 robbery n. [C] 搶劫,竊盜案 The couple stated that although they had committed three armed robberies, they hadn’t hurt anybody.

71 robbery n. [C] 搶劫,竊盜案  The bank hired guards to prevent robberies. 字尾 “­ery” 或 “­ry” 可置於字詞後方, 以形成抽象名詞,例:  rival → rivalry 敵對  brave → bravery 勇敢  mock → mockery 嘲弄  slave → slavery 奴隸制度

72 Words for Production 16. deadline n. [C] a time or date by which something must be done 截止日期,最後期限 The deadline for the essay is October 6. Please turn it in by then.

73 16. deadline n. [C] 截止日期,最後期限  Henry can’t meet the deadline. He is unable to complete the assignment on time. ( 在期限內完成 ) (↔ miss the deadline) set/impose a deadline 訂立期限 tight/strict deadline 很難達成的期限

74 Words for Production 17. grasp vt. to understand something, especially something difficult; to take hold of someone or something tightly 理 解,領會;抓緊,抓牢 Luke didn’t grasp the meaning of the poem, but after he did some research on it, he was able to understand it. The police officer grasped the thief by the arm and wouldn’t let go.

75 17. grasp vt. 1) 理解,領會 2) 抓緊,抓牢 (= grip) 1)  It took the slow­witted kid several hours to grasp the complex idea. 2)  The man grasped the girl by the arm, not letting her leave the room.

76 grasp at sth 1) 試圖利用 ( 機會等 ) 2) 企圖抓住 ( 某物 ) 1)  The businessman grasped at every chance which may help him make a big profit. 2)  Seeing the thief was about to run away, Vivian grasped at his coat.

77 以下補充各種動詞搭配身體部位的用法,教 師可提醒學生,使用此類動詞時,需注意其 所搭配的介係詞,例: take/catch/hold/seize/grasp + sb + by... kiss/hit/pat/tap + sb + on... slap + sb + across...  Ian seized Helen by the wrist, asking her for forgiveness.  The manager patted Sean on the shoulder to encourage him.  The mother flew into a rage and slapped her lying daughter across the face.

78 grasp n. sing. 理解,領會;緊抓,緊握 Emma has a good grasp of the history of World War II. She knows how one event led to another. The baseball slipped from the pitcher’s grasp and fell to the ground as he was going to throw it.

79 grasp n. sing. 1) 理解,領會 (= understanding) 2) 緊抓,緊握 (= grip) 3) 控制,支配 1)  After my science teacher’s logical explanation, I had a good grasp of what causes a tsunami. ( 能理解 … ,對 … 有好的理解力 )  The complicated philosophical issue was beyond the grasp of a four­year­old child. ( 超乎 … 的理解能力 ) 2)  Little Wyatt’s mother asked him to take a tight grasp on her hand because there were too many people in the department store. ( 緊抓 ) 3)  The slaves tried to escape from the grasp of their master.

80 Words for Production 18. promptness n. [U] the state of being at the arranged time 準時 The delivery company promises promptness to its customers: Packages sent in the morning will be received by the addressee in the afternoon.

81 18. promptness n. [U] 準時  The efficient secretary always completes her business assignments with promptness. ( 準時地 )  Known for its promptness, the company claims that it delivers all packages without any delays.

82 prompt adj. ( 指人 ) 準時的;迅速的,立即的 The ceremony will start at exactly six o’clock in the evening. Please be prompt. The rescue team took prompt action and successfully saved the man from drowning in the lake.

83 prompt adj. 1) ( 指人 ) 準時的 (= punctual) 2) 迅速的,立即的 (= immediate) 1)  Ted has never been late for school. He is always prompt. 2)  Miss Lin gave her student a prompt reply to his question.  Dr. Carter provided Erika with prompt care, trying to bring her back to consciousness as soon as possible. prompt adv. (infml.) 準時地 ( 【美】 sharp)  Andy arrived at 12 o’clock prompt. ( … 點整 )

84 Words for Production 19. doom vt. to make certain that someone or something will die, fail, suffer, etc. 命定,注定 ( 死亡、失敗等 ) All humans are doomed to die. No one can escape death.

85 19. doom vt. 命定,注定 ( 死亡、失敗等 )  Despite advanced medical science, humans are doomed to death. ( 注定要 …)  The idea for the new business was not good. In fact, it seemed to be doomed to failure. ( 註定失敗 )

86 doom [dum] n. [U] 劫數,毀滅 A sense of doom hung over me. I felt that something bad was going to happen.

87 doom n. [U] 劫數,毀滅  According to some scientists, the earth will soon meet its doom because of the rise in temperature. ( 毀滅 )

88 prophet of doom 末日預言者 (= doom merchant, doomsayer)  Many prophets of doom have mentioned that the year 2012 would be the end of the world. doom and gloom 悲觀情緒,前景黯淡 (= gloom and doom)  In spite of no more evidence, there is not doom and gloom for solving the case.

89 Words for Production 20. prison n. [C] an unpleasant situation or place from which it is difficult for someone to escape; n. [U] a place where people are kept for breaking the law, or while they are waiting for trial 牢籠,難以脫身的處境;監獄,牢房 To the young woman, the village has become a prison. She wishes to leave it and see the outside world. The man was sent to prison for robbing a bank.

90 20. prison n. 1) [C] 牢籠,難以脫身的處境 2) [C] 監獄,牢房 (= jail) 1)  The classroom seems to be a prison for these energetic boys. 2)  There used to be a prison on Alcatraz Island. It held many notorious criminals and has been open to tourists nowadays.

91 be in prison 坐牢 prison officer/warder 獄卒 be released from prison 出獄 prison camp 戰俘營 be released/escape from prison 出獄 / 逃獄 be sent/put to prison 入獄 (= go to prison)

92 prisoner n. [C] 囚犯,犯人 The prisoner regretted her life of crime. She promised that she would never commit another crime if she had a chance to get out of prison.

93 prisoner n. [C] 囚犯,犯人  As one of the leaders of Tiananmen Square protest of 1989, Wu’erkaixi is a political prisoner in mainland China. ( 政治犯 )

94 Words for Recognition 1. eyelid n. [C] one of the two pieces of skin covering one’s eye when it is closed 眼皮

95 without blinking an eye/eyelid/eyelash 眼睛都不眨一下,無動於衷  Frank listened to the ridiculous story without blinking an eyelid. 1. eyelid n. [C] 眼皮  The exhausted runner was quite sleepy, and his eyelids began to droop.

96 pupils 瞳孔 eyeballs 眼球 eyesight 視力 eyebrow 眉毛 eyelashes 眼睫毛 shadows 黑眼圈

97 Words for Recognition 2. droop vi. to move or hang downward 低垂,垂落

98 2. droop vi. 1) 低垂,垂落 2) ( 草木 ) 枯萎 1)  The girl’s head drooped when the teacher scolded her for failing the test. 2)  It hasn’t rained a drop for a week, so the plants start to droop for lack of water.

99 Words for Recognition 3. Henry David Thoreau n. an American writer and thinker, whose thoughts greatly influenced Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and other political figures 梭羅 (1817-1862)

100 3. Henry David Thoreau n. 梭羅 梭羅於 1817 年出生於美國麻薩諸塞州的 康考特城 (Concord) 。從哈佛大學畢業後, 梭羅便開始教書,並採用多項創新的教學理 論。 1845 年,他開始在康考特的瓦爾登湖 (Walden Pond) 畔隱居,期間他在湖畔所撰 寫的《湖濱散記》為他奠定哲學大師的地位。

101 3. Henry David Thoreau n. 梭羅 該書中涉獵了許多關於自然的議題,在環 保意識高漲的現代,該書被公認為最偉大的 自然文學經典之作,同時他也被視為西方近 代田園派的重要作家。 1847 年,他離開瓦爾 登湖後,四處旅遊,這些旅行提供他豐富的 寫作材料。在他死後集結成冊的包括《旅行 散記》 (Excursions) 、《緬因森林記遊》 (The Maine Woods) 、《卡德岬》 (Cape Cod) 等。

102 梭羅的著作於 1960 年代才開始受到重視,主 要是受到政治上激進主義 (radicalism) 的影響以及 他倡導簡樸生活的觀念。 1970 年代其受歡迎的程 度稍減,但 80 年代後期和 90 年代又再度崛起。他 那消極反抗的理念甚至影響了中國大陸的天安門 事件及東歐共產政權的瓦解。他主張與自然合而 為一,使他成為生態保護的先驅。 1970 年,一項 針對大學教師的調查發現:霍桑 (Nathaniel Hawthorne) 和梭羅是最受歡迎的作家,而《湖濱 散記》則是最受歡迎的文學作品。

103 Words for Recognition 4. escalator n. [C] a moving staircase that takes people to different levels or floors in a building 電扶梯

104 chairlift 滑雪纜車 elevator 電梯 ( 【英】 lift) dumb waiter ( 餐館用的 ) 小型升降梯 4. escalator n. [C] 電扶梯  Feeling tired, we took the escalator instead of running up the stairs.

105 Words for Recognition 5. spurt [sp3t] n. [C] a sudden increase in emotion, effort, etc. ( 情緒、幹勁等的 ) 迸發 補充 單字目錄

106 5. spurt n. [C] ( 情緒、幹勁等的 ) 迸發  David shouted at his girlfriend in a spurt of anger as he found that she had cheated on him.  spurt 1) vi. 湧出,迸出 2) vi. 衝刺,忽然加速 1)  I hit against the wall, and blood spurted from my nose. 2)  The energetic boy spurted to top of the steps, panting for breath.

107 Idioms and Phrases 1. put something off to delay doing something 拖延,延宕 We have midterm exams this week, so let’s put the class picnic off until next weekend.

108 put sb off 1) 使疏遠,使反感 2) 打擾,使分神 1)  Although the girl is attractive, her bad manners always put others off. 2)  The mother asked her little boy not to put off his sister while she was studying. 1. put something off 拖延,延宕 (= postpone, delay)  Since it is raining heavily, the referee has decided to put off the baseball game until tomorrow.

109 Idioms and Phrases 2. a matter of something (of seconds, hours, days, etc.) a short period of time 一小段時間 The Mexican restaurant is just around the corner. You can reach it on foot in a matter of minutes.

110 a matter of life and death 攸關生死的事 (as) a matter of course 通常,照例  Phoebe treated her younger sister to dinner as a matter of course. a matter of time 時間的問題,早晚的事  Don’t worry. You will get a promotion sooner or later. It’s just a matter of time. 2. a matter of something 一小段時間  The crossword puzzle was so easy that it was solved in a matter of seconds.

111 Idioms and Phrases 3. run out to use up something 用盡,耗盡 I’d better hurry up and finish the meal because I’m running out of time.

112 3. run out 1) 用盡,耗盡 2) 過期,到期 (= expire) 1)  After spending a lot of money remodeling his office, the businessman realized that he was running out of money.  The young mother ran out of patience and yelled at her naughty child. 2)  My visa will run out next month, so I have to apply for a new one.

113 run out of sth 用光 ( 某物 ) ,耗盡 ( 某物 )  We need to refill the gas tank before we run out of gas. run out on sb ( 在某人有難時 ) 離開,遺棄  Jamie ran out on her husband when he was broke.

114 Idioms and Phrases 4. sum (something) up to state briefly the main point(s) of something again 總結,簡而言之 In the essay, the student gave several examples to illustrate her points and then summed up her ideas in the concluding paragraph.

115 4. sum (something) up 總結,簡而言之 (= summarize)  The chairman summed up what we had agreed at the end of the discussion.  After giving full details about the plan, the president summed up all the arguments in a few words. sum n. [C] 1) 金額,款項 2) 總和,總數 1)  The couple spent huge sums of money on the new house. ( 巨額的 ) 2)  The sum of 6 and 5 is 11.

116 Idioms and Phrases 5. leave something to be desired to be unacceptable or unsatisfactory 有待改進 To the audience’s great disappointment, the troupe’s performance tonight left something to be desired.

117 5. leave something to be desired 有待改進 (↔ leave nothing to be desired)  My brother has just learned painting. It’s not surprising that his paintings leave something to be desired.  The service in the hotel leaves something to be desired. No wonder the number of its guests decreases day by day.

118 片語 leave something to be desired 中的 something 亦可用 a lot 、 much 代換,例:  The trainee’s performance left something/a lot/much to be desired.

119 Idioms and Phrases 6. get down to something to start to do something seriously 開始認真做 ( 某事 ) Jason fooled around all day, and it was not until 10 p.m. that he finally got down to his chemistry assignment.

120 6. get down to something 開始認真做 ( 某事 )  Vincent finally got down to thinking about his future after he obtained his master’s degree.  It’s time to stop fooling around and get down to your work!

121 get sb down 使某人沮喪、傷心 (= depress sb)  Kaden refused the girl’s invitation, which really got her down. get sth down 1) 吞下某物 (= swallow sth) 2) 記錄,寫下某物 (= note/take/write sth down) 1)  If you have a splitting headache, get this pill down. It will ease your pain in seconds. 2)  The journalist got down every word that the politician said during the interview.

122 Idioms and Phrases 7. take up something to fill or use a particular amount of time or space 佔據 ( 空間或時間 ) The sofa took up too much space in the living room, so my mother replaced it with a smaller one.

123 7. take up something 1) 佔據 ( 空間或時間 ) (= occupy) 2) 開始養成 … 的習慣,開始從事 3) 接受 ( 建議或挑戰 ) 4) 繼續講、做某事 (= pick sth up) 1)  The large Christmas tree took up a lot of space in the living room. 2)  Jim took up keeping a diary when he was in senior high school. 3)  The boss took up the advice and decided to recruit more designers. 4)  The lecturer took up the class after a short break.

124 Idioms and Phrases 8. for (so) long for a long time 很長一段時間 I haven’t seen Betty for so long that I doubt if she can still recognize me.

125 8. for (so) long 很長一段時間  I have been waiting here for my friend for so long that I fell asleep.

126 Idioms and Phrases 9. catch up on something to do something that someone should have done already; to find out what has happened, especially when someone is not around 補做 ( 該做而未做的事 ) ;瞭解 ( 不在時發生的事 ) After Mr. Wheeler got back from his vacation, he had a lot of paperwork to catch up on at the office. Rachael turned on the TV to catch up on the news after she returned home from Germany.

127 9. catch up on something 1) 補做 ( 該做而未做的事 ) 2) 瞭解 ( 不在時發生的事 ) 1)  Since Edward went to bed late last night, he needed to catch up on sleep this morning. 2)  After the separated couple finally got together, they had much to catch up on.

128 Idioms and Phrases 10. on top of something in control of something; in addition to something 控制,掌握;除了 … 之外 It takes time to learn how to stay on top of things, especially when you are not familiar with the work. Nikki got up late and missed the school bus this morning. On top of that, she forgot the library books that were due today.

129 10. on top of something 1) 控制,掌握 2) 除了 … 之外 (= in addition to) 1)  The supervisor worked diligently to be on top of everything. 2)  The girl lost her way and on top of that, she didn’t have her cell phone with her.  Bruce writes for the newspaper on top of his regular job.

130 Idioms and Phrases 11. have yet to do something to have not yet done something that should have been done 還沒、尚未 ( 做早該完成的事 ) The jury has yet to announce the winner of the competition, so now all that the contestants can do is wait.

131 11. have yet to do something 還沒、尚未 ( 做早該完成的事 )  Kitty has yet to finish her homework, so she is not allowed to watch TV.  The actor has been nominated three times for the Academy Awards but has yet to win one.

132 1.Time is free, but it’s priceless. You can’t own it, but you can use it. You can’t keep it, but you can spend it. Once you’ve lost it, you can never get it back. —Harvey MacKay 2.Time is more valuable than money. You can get more money, but you cannot get more time. —Jim Rohn I. Quotes about time

133 3. You may delay, but time will not. —Benjamin Franklin 4. We say we waste time, but that is impossible. We waste ourselves. —Alice Bloch 5. Time and tide wait for no man. —Mark Twain

134  Never leave that till tomorrow which you can do today. ─Benjamin Franklin ( 今日事,今日畢。 )  Time is the coin of your life. It is the only coin you have, and only you can determine how it will be spent. Be careful lest you let other people spend it for you. ─Carl Sandburg ( 時間是你人生的硬幣。這是你唯一的硬幣, 也只有你能決定要怎麼花用它。你必須小 心, 否則別人便會幫你花掉。 )

135  We must use time as a tool, not as a crutch. ─John F. Kennedy ( 我們必須把時間當工具用,而非當支柱。 ) (→ 我們應該學會善用時間,而不是依賴 它。 )  Men talk of killing time, while time quietly kills them. ─Dion Boucicault ( 人們談論著消磨時間,時間卻悄悄地消磨 他們的生命。 )

136  Time is the school in which we learn; time is the fire in which we burn. ─Delmore Schwartz ( 時間是學校,我們在裡面學習;時間是火焰, 我們在其中燃燒。 )  You must have been warned against letting the golden hours slip by; but some of them are golden only because we let them slip by. ─James M. Barrie ( 你一定被警告過不要讓黃金時光溜走;但一 些時刻之所以美好就是因為我們讓它溜走 了。 )

137  Better three hours too soon than a minute too late. ─William Shakespeare ( 早到三小時比遲到一分鐘好。 )  Those who make the worst use of their time are the first to complain of its shortness. ─Jean de La Bruyère ( 最不善於利用時間的人,最先抱怨時光短 暫。 )

138 II. The suffix “-ward(s)” The suffix “-ward(s)” can be used to form an adjective or adverb. It means “moving in or in the direction of something.” downward 向下 earthward 向地面 sunward 向陽 backward 向後的 windward 迎風的 homeward 在歸途上的

139 字尾 “­ward” 可用以構成形容詞或副詞,此 類字尾的字詞常表示「朝 … 的方向」,英式 英語習慣拼作 “­wards” ,例:  in → inward(s) 向內的 ( 地 )  left → leftward(s) 向左的 ( 地 )  sky → skyward(s) 朝天的 ( 地 )  east → eastward(s) 向東的 ( 地 )  land → landward(s) 向陸的 ( 地 )  river → riverward(s) 向河的 ( 地 )

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