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Searing Images of Partition: Margaret Bourke-White Margaret Bourke-White was Time-Lifes photo-correspondent in India and Pakistan in 1946-7. She is regarded.

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Presentation on theme: "Searing Images of Partition: Margaret Bourke-White Margaret Bourke-White was Time-Lifes photo-correspondent in India and Pakistan in 1946-7. She is regarded."— Presentation transcript:

1 Searing Images of Partition: Margaret Bourke-White Margaret Bourke-White was Time-Lifes photo-correspondent in India and Pakistan in She is regarded as one of the great photographers of all time. She died in These images are reproduced in Khushwant Singh, Train to Pakistan (1956; repr. 2006: Roli Books, Lotus Collection, New Delhi) and are held at the Getty Images website, from whom licensed copies may be purchased. and For copyright reasons the images are not reproduced here. Teachers could assign the search for images to their students, and request each student to write a short personal reflection on the significance of a particular image.

2 Margaret Bourke-White ( ) The photojournalist also was "one of the most effective chroniclers" of the violence that erupted at the independence and partition of India and Pakistan, according to Somini Sengupta, the writer of an arts section of the New York Times. Sengupta called Bourke-White's photographs of the episode "gut- wrenching, and staring at them, you glimpse the photographer's undaunted desire to stare down horror." The photographer recorded streets littered with corpses, dead victims with open eyes, and refugees with vacant eyes. "Bourke- White's photographs seem to scream on the page," Sengupta wrote.

3 Khushwant Singh details collection/-/train-to-pakistan/

4 Ref. Singh p white%20Muslims%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Rural Sikhs in a long ox-cart train heading towards India. Margaret Bourke- White The migration was a massive exercise in human misery, wrote Bourke-White later. What had been merely arbitrarily drawn areas on a map began emptying and refilling with human beings – neatly separated into so-called opposite religious communities – as childrens crayons fill in an outline map in a geography class. But this was no childs play. This was a massive exercise in human misery (Bourke-White quoted at Singh p. 111). Convoy of Muslims migrating from the Sikh state of Faridkot after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

5 Ref. Singh pp Partition+of+India+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3DLife%2B- %2BPartition%2Bof%2BIndia%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den&imgurl=8c439fb6f5a575 d0 Old Sikh man carrying his wife. Margaret Bourke-White Margaret Bourke: But long after the last of my negatives had been despatched by air to Life, those millions of peasants were still trudging blindly forward on their tragic journey. The total of Sikhs and Hindus leaving Pakistan had reached four million, but with six million Muslims, this infant Land of the Pure seemed in danger of being swept away by the very number of the pure pouring into it. Ref. Singh p. 48.

6 Ref. Singh, p ourke-white%20Sikhs%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN An aged and abandoned Muslim couple and their grandchildren sitting by the roadside. The old man is dying of exhaustion. The caravan has gone on. As witnessed by Margaret Bourke-White. Aged Muslim Indian couple with their four grandchildren sit abandoned by roadside because they could not keep up with their caravan fleeing from East to West Punjab to escape anti-Muslim Sikhs. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

7 Ref. Singh, p. xx. Two Muslim men (in a rural refugee train headed towards Pakistan) carrying an old woman in a makeshift doli or palanquin Photo attributed to Margaret Bourke-White.

8 Ref. Singh, pp white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN&imgurl=ed07495e7800a065 With the tragic legacy of an uncertain future, a young (Muslim?) man sits on the walls of Purana Qila, transformed into a vast Muslim refugee camp in Delhi for future migrants to Pakistan. Boy sitting on rock ledge above refugee camp. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

9 Ref. Singh, pp %20Partition%20of%20India%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3DLife%2B- %2BPartition%2Bof%2BIndia%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den Sikhs migrating to Hindu section of Punjab after partitioning of India. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White Bourke-White: the division of India into two separate nations – based on religious differences – blew fanaticism to such heat that great caravans of desperate, terror-stricken refugees began to crawl along the inadequate roads, millions of them. They had almost no defences against the hazards that beset them – famine, cholera, gangsters and exhaustion. Thousands on thousands perished. This inhumanity was described as an exhange of population.

10 Ref. Singh, p bourke- white%20Sikhs%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN Mass Migration, India Emaciated Sikh child suffering from cholera as it lies in filthy condition at Infectious Disease Hospital. Location:Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

11 white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN&imgurl=330eecf61b Mass Migration, India Wreckage from carts & belongings Indian refugees who had been camped there before the Beas River flooded over, during mass migration because of religious conflicts. Location:East Punjab, India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

12 white+Muslims+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den&imgurl= ae47961d Mass Migration, India Wreckage from carts & belongings Indian refugees who had been camped there before the Beas River flooded over, during mass migration because of religious conflicts. Location:East Punjab, India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

13 Ref. Singh, p white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN&imgurl= ccf87ae Mass Migration, India Muslim refugee cholera patients in filthy condition at Infectious Disease Hospital upon their arrival after their long march from Delhi, India. Location:Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

14 Ref. Singh, p ourke-white%20Sikhs%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa %3DN Mass Migration, India Men placing bodies in mass grave as bulldozer stands ready to cover them up with dirt after attacks by Sikhs during Muslim mass migrations from India due to religious conflicts between Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs, near the border. Location:Wagah, Pakistan Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

15 Ref. Singh, p white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN&imgurl=7fe5b3451d17b4c9 Mass Migration, India Muslim refugee cholera patient with child, getting intravenous glucose solution in the infusion room at Infectious Disease Hospital. Location:Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

16 Ref. Singh, p. xvii white+Muslims+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D60%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN&imgurl= a1ca085ae Not all reached the promised land Mass Migration, India The mutilated body of a male Muslim, the victim of a Sikh attack at railroad train station, the origin of the "Pakistan Special Train" intended to take Muslims to liberty in West Punjab. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

17 Ref. Singh, p white+Muslims+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D60%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN&imgurl=b1015a4a1d4eaf54 Mass Migration, India The grotesque body of a male Muslim, the victim of a Sikh attack at railroad train station, the origin of the "Pakistan Special Train" intended to take Muslims to liberty in West Punjab. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

18 Ref. Singh, p white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN&imgurl=dd8d2daaf Mass Migration, India Muslim refugee cholera patients in filthy condition at Infectious Disease Hospital upon their arrival after their long march from Delhi, India. Location:Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

19 Ref. Singh, p white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN&imgurl=eccf2477bdc5b287 Mass Migration, India Purano Qila fortress refugee camp housing thousands of Muslims who have fled their homes fearing Hindu attacks; they are trying to survive until they can organize long march to West Punjab which has become Muslim Pakistan. Location:New Delhi, India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

20 Ref. Singh, pp bourke- white%20Sikhs%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG Mass Migration, India Bloated corpses of Muslims as they were migrating from India to Pakistan because of the religious conflicts between the Sikhs & Muslims. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White Bourke-White: as though the travail of a people divided by pen strokes was not enough, North India, in this year of all years, suffered the worst floods since In the Punjab, which means Land of the Five Rivers, all five began overflowing their banks, tearing away the earth barriers in the network of canals, spilling into the fields and trapping entire encampments of refugees. Thousands of peasants were trapped – they had no one to warn them. The River Beas claimed the most victims. When the water began receding sufficiently for me to get to it, I photographed one meadow between the river and a railroad camp where 4,000 Muslims had gone in to camp for the night. Only one thousand had come out alive.

21 white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN&imgurl=e003e9b3300b2cf6 Mass Migration, India View at Purano Qila fortress refugee camp where thousands of Muslims who have fled their homes in terror of Hindu attacks are trying to survive until they can organize a convoy for the long march to the West Punjab, now Moslem Pakistan. Location:New Delhi, India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

22 bourke- white%20India%20refugees%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bb ourke-white%2BIndia%2Brefugees%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG Mass Migration, India Muslim refugee cholera patients in filthy condition at Infectious Disease Hospital upon their arrival after their long march from Delhi, India. Location:Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

23 Ref. Singh, p white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN&imgurl=a9b34a40deca4ce3 Mass Migration, India View at Purano Qila fortress refugee camp where thousands of Muslims who have fled their homes in terror of Hindu attacks are trying to survive until they can organize a convoy for the long march to the West Punjab, now Muslim Pakistan. Location:New Delhi, India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

24 Ref. Singh, p white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG&imgurl=558b53d992e034 8c Mass Migration, India Fly-covered Muslim bodies of the victims of Sikh attacks at the railroad train station which was the origin of the "Pakistan Special Train" intended to take Muslims to liberty in the West Punjab. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

25 white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG&imgurl=1fd39176b04d85 3b Mass Migration, India Dog eating the fly-covered body of a female Muslim, the victim of a Sikh attack at the railroad train station, the origin of the "Pakistan Special Train" intended to take Muslims to liberty in the West Punjab. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

26 Ref. Singh, p ourke- white%20India%20refugees%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bb ourke-white%2BIndia%2Brefugees%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG Mass Migration, India Family of Sikh refugees from Lahore about to be settled as male members of their family are out seeing about land allotments. Location:Lamapind, East Punjab, India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

27 Ref. Singh, p. 45 ourke- white%20Muslims%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den Not all could stay together. Who knows whether they will meet again? Grieving Muslim mother hugging family member at gravesite of her 4-yr.-old child who died of starvation when their "Pakistan Special" train was stopped for 4 days by Sikh violence during their migration to Pakistan to avoid the Hindu- Muslim conflict. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

28 Ref. Singh, p white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN&imgurl=fdb4fcbe50b7a7fa Mass Migration, India Moslim refugee cholera patient breast-feeding her baby at Infectious Disease Hospital. Location:Kasur, West Punjab, Pakistan Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

29 Ref. Singh, p Sikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D80%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN&i mgurl=fa1138faade01fab Vultures gathering to tear at the bodies of four Muslim migrants who were murdered by anti-Moslem Sikhs & left in a flooded field 6 miles from Amrisitar. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

30 Sikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D80%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN&i mgurl=fa1138faade01fab Old exhausted Muslim Indian woman sitting in a sheet with her legs drawn up as she dangles from a bamboo pole supported by her brother-in-law & son as they journey with a caravan fleeing fr. East to West Punjab to escape anti-Muslim Sikhs. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

31 Ref. Singh, p white+Muslims+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN&imgurl=cb21fc99d9b1c19f Muslim Indian mother breast-feeding her baby as she rides a burro under cover of an umbrella while part of a caravan fleeing from East to West Punjab to escape anti-Muslim Sikhs. Location:India Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

32

33 Ref. Singh, pp Partition+of+India+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3DLife%2B- %2BPartition%2Bof%2BIndia%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den&imgurl=d7e7d6cb18efaa cf# Refugees making their way to India, leaving behind corpses and graves. Date taken:October 1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White Human debris in the wake of migration. Refugees making their way to India, leaving behind a trail of corpses and graves. More than once, Margaret saw children pulling at the hands of their dead mothers, tearfully begging to be carried as the convoy marched on without them states Vicki Goldberg, biographer of Margaret Bourke-White.

34 white+Muslims+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN&imgurl=40c ca41c7 Convoy of Sikhs migrating to East Punjab after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

35 Ref. Singh, p. 50 white+Muslims+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN&imgurl=4ad9b7de8300aa6f We thought that this was an understood thing that we would get the whole of the Punjab. We heard we were going to have our own Sikhistan. Margaret Bourke-White quotes this in her book Halfway to Freedom (1948). Sikh and his family in convoy migrating to East Punjab after the division of India Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

36 Ref. Singh, p ourke-white%20Sikhs%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN Convoy of Sikhs migrating to East Punjab after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

37 white+Sikhs+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26s a%3DN&imgurl=f5cae92b3b0d5988 Convoy of Sikhs migrating to East Punjab after the division of India Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

38 Ref. Singh, p. 46 rce:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D80%26ndsp%3D 20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Convoy of Sikhs carrying their belongings on their heads as they migrate to East Punjab after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White Margaret Bourke-White: the sight of helpless sufferers had made me very angry. These were innocent peasants; some had been driven from their ancestral homes; the others had listened to the drumming of religious slogans and left home to pursue a dream.

39 ourke- white%20India%20refugees%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bb ourke- white%2BIndia%2Brefugees%2Bsource:life%26start%3D20%26ndsp%3D20%26hl %3Den%26sa%3DN Muslim man smoking a hookah as his family camps for the night during migration to West Punjab after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

40 Ref. Singh, p bourke- white%20Sikhs%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D80%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26sa %3DN Family in convoy of Sikhs carrying their belongings on their heads as they migrate to East Punjab after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

41 Ref. Singh, p bourke- white%20Muslims%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN Convoy of Muslims migrating from the Sikh state of Faridkot after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

42 rce:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D80%26ndsp%3D 20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Convoy of Sikhs migrating to East Punjab after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

43 Ref. Singh, p white+Muslims+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN&imgurl=2d49b29c0cd447c4 Convoy of Sikhs migrating to East Punjab after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White An antique purdah carriage

44 Ref. Singh, p. xii white+Muslims+source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN&imgurl=d93b36e3b91b3449 Sikh carrying his wife on his shoulders in convoy migrating to East Punjab after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

45 Ref. Singh, p ce:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D80%26ndsp%3D2 0%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Convoy of Sikhs migrating to East Punjab after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

46 rce:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSikhs%2Bsource:life%26start%3D60%26ndsp%3D 20%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Sikhs migrating to the Hindu section of Punjab (India) after the division of India. Location:India Date taken:1947 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

47 bourke- white%20Muslims%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den Bengal India Hindu man picking through the burned ruins of furniture in front of Hindu store in the wake of the destruction caused by Muslim riots in this predominately Muslim area, on Wellesly St. in the city. Location:Calcutta, Bengal, India Date taken:September 1946 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

48 Ref. Singh p e:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSikhs%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den Life Visits The Sikhs Of India Sikh granthi or priest, cleaning the ancient sacred sword of the Sikh faith, the symbol of their valour that was once used against Moslem invaders, in the Golden Temple. Location:Amritsar, W. Punjab, India Date taken:September 1946 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White NB: Photograph taken before Partition. Sikh ceremonial swords were used to kill. Margaret Bourke-White: Hatred had been so whipped up by the political pressures which had divided the nations that a new morality had developed. All members of a different religious group were fair prey for loot and murder.

49 bourke- white%20drought%20India%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbo urke- white%2Bdrought%2BIndia%2Bsource:life%26start%3D20%26ndsp%3D20%26hl% 3Den%26sa%3DN Water Supply/Famine In India Starving Indians gathered around 200-yr.-old village well which has very little water in it due to horrible drought. Location:Vantkatapuran, Mysore, India Date taken:1946 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

50 ourke- white%20drought%20India%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbo urke- white%2Bdrought%2BIndia%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl% 3Den%26sa%3DN Famine In India Grain sprouting up in irrigated fields amidst the starkly arid hills during severe drought nr. village.. Location:Sira, Mysore, India Date taken:1946 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

51 Ref. Singh, p ourke- white%20Muslims%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26hl%3Den Hindu/Muslim Riots - India 1946 Vultures feeding on corpses lying abandoned in alleyway after bloody rioting between Hindus and Muslims. Location:Calcutta, India Date taken:1946 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

52 Ref. Singh, p bourke- white%20Muslims%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN Corpses lying among pieces of wood in preparation for cremation after bloody rioting between Hindus and Muslims. Location:Calcutta, India Date taken:1946 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

53 Ref. Singh, p. xviii. ourke- white%20Muslims%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN Man carrying another man as they wait in railroad station trying to escape city after bloody rioting between Hindus and Muslims. Location:Calcutta, India Date taken:1946 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

54 Ref. Singh, p ourke- white%20Muslims%20source:life&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmargaret%2Bbourke- white%2BMuslims%2Bsource:life%26start%3D20%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%2 6sa%3DN Men unloading corpses from truck in preparation for cremation after bloody rioting between Hindus and Muslims. Location:Calcutta, India Date taken:1946 Photographer:Margaret Bourke-White

55 IN MEMORIAM TO ALL THOSE WHO SUFFERED OR DIED, WHETHER HINDUS, MUSLIMS, SIKHS OR OTHERS. In memoriam also to Margaret Bourke-White, Time-Lifes photo-correspondent in India and Pakistan in These images are taken from Khushwant Singh, Train to Pakistan (1956; repr. 2006: Roli Books, Lotus Collection, New Delhi) and / or from Getty Images.com and


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