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© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 Information slides Gypsy, Roma and Traveller pupils
© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 2 Communities and cultural context
© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 3 Who are the Travellers? Anglo-Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers, Welsh Gypsies and Scottish Travellers Roma Fairground or show people Circus families Boat people New Travellers. There are several main groups of Travellers in the United Kingdom:
© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 4 Gypsy, Roma and Traveller children
© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 5 A short history… Second World War 300–500,000 Gypsies died in the concentration camps 1989 – Anglo-Romany Gypsies legally recognised as an ethnic group 2000 – Irish Travellers legally recognised as an ethnic group 1505 – First record of Gypsies in Britain 1530 – First law making being an immigrant Gypsy punishable by death 1596 – 106 Gypsies condemned to death at one sitting in York 1783 – First act repealing the above legislation
© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 6 Language Romany Gypsies – Romani Irish Travellers – Gammon Scottish Travellers – Cant Romani contains words from Persian, Greek and many other Eastern and Western European languages. A high proportion is still of Indian origin. Romani derives from ancient Sanskrit. Kushti Nice, good Mush Man Holler Shout Mokkadi Unclean Frit Frightened Chavvi Boy
© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 7 Fairground families Fairground Organ by surprise truck. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Baller Alarm by Toni_V. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Photograph of Fairground Horses by Dave-F. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 8 Circus families The big juggle by Charles Haynes. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. The girl on the swing thing by Terwilliger911. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Circus Dancers by acaben. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 9 Boat families Photograph of regents canal barges by ktylerconk. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN New Travellers New Travellers refers to a growing community of people from a range of cultural and social backgrounds that have taken up a nomadic way of life over the last 40 years. In order to restrict the travelling patterns of New Travellers, such as large convoys gathering for music festivals, the 1994 Criminal Justice & Public Order Act was brought in and this criminalised unauthorised camping by all Travellers. There are small numbers of New Traveller children entering mainstream education as often their parents have chosen an alternative lifestyle and wish to educate their children themselves.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Gypsy/Roma and Traveller ethnic definitions Recognised as a Minority Ethnic Group under the Race Relations Act 1989 Romany Gypsies 2000 Travellers of Irish heritage Known as Romany Gypsies (whether English, Scottish or Welsh) and Irish Travellers (whether mobile, of limited mobility or not living a constantly mobile way of life but settled in housing or in caravans on public or private sites).
© Crown copyright PPT-EN The Race Relations (Amendment) Act The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 places a general duty on every public authority, including LAs and maintained schools, to promote race equality. In everything they do they should have due regard to the need to: –eliminate unlawful discrimination –promote equality of opportunity –promote good race relations between people of different racial groups.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Wider issues impacting on Gypsy, Roma and Traveller communities
© Crown copyright PPT-EN The types of accommodation vary from group to group and within groups of Travellers Gypsy Caravan Closer Up by bixentro. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Sarah & Chrome by fast eddie 42. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Homes for Gypsies and Irish Travellers may be: In a house On an official site On the roadside Bessermer Terrace near Stocksbridge Steel Works by johnthescone. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Travel Patterns Nomadic – constantly travelling or travelling for long periods –Occupation –Family connections –Retaining networks Semi-nomadic – travelling for part of the year –Seasonal occupation –Religious conventions –Family/personal reasons –Retaining networks Static – travelling for short periods –Holidays –Family visits –Religious conventions
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Gypsy and Traveller accommodation Information on numbers of Gypsy caravans comes from twice-yearly counts made by local authorities. –January 2007: Total of 16,611 caravans –January 2009:Total of 17,865 caravans –68% of sites are more than 1km from a primary school –55% of sites are more than 1km from a post office –38% of sites are more than 1km from public transport –70% located in fringe areas of towns or villages –19% located in rural areas –11% located next to residential land It is estimated that well over half of Gypsies and Travellers live in houses.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Managing mobility The lack of secure accommodation for nomadic groups remains the lynchpin of a plethora of other inequalities It is estimated that the entire Gypsy and Traveller population could be legally accommodated if as little as one square mile of land were allocated for sites in England 83% of LAs are not on track to provide the necessary pitches by 2011 Gypsies and Travellers: Simple solutions for living together – recommendations for national agencies, Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2009
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Some obstacles to adequate accommodation Lack of adequate council and private sites Lack of transit sites Planning permission refusals Existing sites are often located at a distance from common services and near to motorways, major roads, rubbish tips and industrial activity Lack of security of tenure
© Crown copyright PPT-EN A disadvantaged community? Access to mainstream services can be very difficult and compared to the settled population there is: Lower life expectancy – 12 years fewer for women, 10 for men Higher neo-natal death rate Higher rates of death in childbirth Higher incidence of stress-related illnesses and suicides Difficulty in registering with GPs and dentists Higher incidence of chronic illnesses, e.g. respiratory diseases, rheumatism, digestive illnesses Restricted access to screening programmes Lower rates of vaccinations
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Two main barriers to social inclusion Lack of systematic accurate ethnic data collection across key areas of service provision and employment Fear of hostility, rejection and racist attitudes
© Crown copyright PPT-EN What needs to happen to break down barriers? Improved data collection system Recognition of Gypsy, Roma and Travellers rights Raised levels of awareness of the communities Overcoming settled community perceptions Building trust with communities Accurate identification of needs through consultation and involvement
© Crown copyright PPT-EN It is important to include and address the needs of the Gypsy and Traveller communities. Failure to do so may worsen the situation of those most marginalised and vulnerable. By not addressing issues of marginalisation, exclusion or discrimination, this may serve to strengthen the settled communitys ability to marginalise, exclude or discriminate.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Raising the attainment of Gypsy, Roma and Traveller pupils
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Vulnerable children …probably the most severely deprived children in the country. …the childrens educational needs are nevertheless extreme and largely unmet… Plowden Report – 1967 …of the four focus groups in this survey, Gypsy Traveller pupils are the group most at risk in the education system. Teacher expectations of Gypsy Traveller pupils are generally unreasonably low. … the level of hostility faced by Gypsy Traveller children is probably greater than for any other minority ethnic group. Raising the attainment of minority ethnic pupils, Ofsted, 1999
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Continuity of learning For a significant proportion of pupils from Gypsy, Roma and Traveller families, educational discontinuity was a major contributory factor to underachievement. Managing Support for the Attainment of Pupils from Minority Ethnic Groups, Ofsted, 2001
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Secondary school research project findings This three-year study involved 44 students in 15 LAs: Majority left primary school with levels of attainment well below national average By Key Stage 3 only 20% of students attained level 5 in English, compared with 70% national average Pupils reluctant to report to their teachers racial harassment and bullying, instead believed it safer to hide their ethnicity By the end of Key Stage 3 more than half of the sample had dropped out 45% of the students were on the SEN register More than 25% of the students had been excluded Gypsy Traveller Students in Secondary Schools, Derrington and Kendall (2004) Extracts from Gypsy Traveller Students in Secondary Schools, Derrington, C. and Kendall, S. © Trentham Books. Used with kind permission.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Traveller Education Support Services aim to : Raise awareness and understanding of the Gypsy, Roma and Traveller communities, culture and lifestyle so schools, agencies and organisations can become more inclusive Secure improved access to education for vulnerable children Promote and facilitate access to educational opportunities among Gypsy, Roma and Traveller families
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Ways in which services achieve their aims Providing advice and support to schools Assistance with home/school liaison Advising schools on the most effective strategies for induction, encouraging: –Advice on welfare matters –Professional development –Liaison with other local agencies –Liaison with other LAs and agencies nationally –Use of a resource bank of materials –Record transfer –Advice on the provision of Distance Learning Packs
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Work with schools Support is targeted towards the most vulnerable children. The first priorities are: For highly mobile children to secure access and attendance at school Transfer to secondary school Maintenance of attendance at secondary school (Aiming High: Raising the Achievement of Gypsy Traveller Pupils, DfES 2003)
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Pre-school education Average participation for Travelling children in nursery, playgroup or other under-five provision is approximately 20%... Attitudes are changing… More positive less anxious view of education. The Education of Travelling children – Survey of Educational provision for Travelling Children, Ofsted 1996
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Post-16 education The number of Traveller young people who have access to and take advantage of post-school vocational training and further and higher education is worryingly small. The Education of Travelling children – Survey of Educational provision for Travelling Children, Ofsted, 1996
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Why are Traveller parents reluctant to send their children to school? Personal experience – may be little or none; may have been negative Little knowledge of education today Fear of hostility and rejection Inflexible admissions procedures Insecure stopping places Fear that children may be educated out Parental expectations mismatch with education Curriculum Media influence
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Factors that hinder access to school Lack of school places League tables on achievement Attendance issues Media influence Rapid evictions Transport difficulties Elective Home Education
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Including Gypsy, Roma and Traveller children
© Crown copyright PPT-EN What makes an inclusive school? An educationally inclusive school is one in which the teaching and learning, achievements, attitudes and well- being of every young person matter. Effective schools are educationally inclusive schools. This shows, not only in their performance, but also in their ethos and their willingness to offer new opportunities to pupils who may have previously experienced difficulties. This does not mean treating all pupils in the same way. Rather it involves taking account of pupils varied life experiences and needs. Evaluating Education Inclusion – Guidance for Inspectors and Schools 2001
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Evaluating inclusive practice… Do all school policies and practices promote inclusion? Do all staff have high expectations of all pupils? Do all the school staff have an understanding of other cultures? Are resources inclusive of Gypsy, Roma and Traveller communities? Are positive images of Gypsy, Roma and Traveller communities included in the curriculum? How are new parents and children welcomed into school? How do you communicate with parents who may have low levels of literacy? Do you have a named member of staff that children and parents know they can talk to? Do all staff take collective responsibility for challenging stereotyping? Are Traveller parents involved in school life for example as governors, staff members?
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Some examples of joint working with the TESS may include: Home – school liaison Advice on culturally appropriate curriculum and resources Advice about the induction of new arrivals Record transfer/liaison with other LAs Professional development training on race equality, Gypsy, Roma and Traveller culture and lifestyle School self-evaluation Collaborate with the TESS
© Crown copyright PPT-EN No child should be expected to cast off the language and culture of the home as he crosses the school threshold… and the curriculum should reflect those aspects of his life. Bullock Report, A Language for Life, 1975 Provide a culturally relevant and affirming curriculum
© Crown copyright PPT-EN The situation of Travellers children in Britain today throws into stark relief many of the factors which influence the children from other ethnic minority groups – racism & discrimination, myths, stereotyping & misinformation, the inappropriateness and inflexibility of the education system and the need for better links between homes and schools and teachers and parents. Education For All, 1985
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Some comments: Deputy headteacher of a secondary school He cant come here, hes a Traveller. Teacher in a secondary school You mean we have Gypsies in our school? Theyre all dirty and dishonest. Mother of an eight-year-old boy to his class teacher I dont want my child to sit next to a Gypsy.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN Horses are still very important to this community Pictures taken at Appleby Horse Fair Three photos taken at Appleby Horse Fair 2009 by C. Wilkinson. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence.
© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 Acknowledgements Fairground Organ by surprise truck. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Baller Alarm by Toni_V. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Photograph of Fairground Horses by Dave-F. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. The girl on the swing thing by Terwilliger911. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Circus Dancers by acaben. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. The big juggle by Charles Haynes. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Photograph of regents canal barges by ktylerconk. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Gypsy Caravan Closer Up by bixentro. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. 43
© Crown copyright PPT-EN-01 Acknowledgements Sarah & Chrome by fast eddie 42. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Bessermer Terrace near Stocksbridge Steel Works by johnthescone. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. Extracts from Gypsy Traveller Students in Secondary Schools, Derrington, C. and Kendall, S. © Trentham Books. Used with kind permission. Three photos taken at Appleby Horse Fair 2009 by C. Wilkinson. Used with kind permission under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence. 44
© Crown copyright 2010 Crown copyright The content of this publication may be reproduced for non-commercial research, education or training purposes provided that the material is acknowledged as Crown copyright, the publication title is specified, it is reproduced accurately and not used in a misleading context. For any other use of this material please apply to OPSI for a Click-Use, PSI Licence, or by writing to: Office of Public Sector Information Information Policy Team National Archives Kew Richmond Surrey TW9 4DU Web: The permission to reproduce Crown copyright protected material does not extend to any material in this publication which is identified as being the copyright of a third party, or to Royal Arms and other departmental or agency logos, nor does it include the right to copy any photographic or moving images of children or adults in a way that removes the image or footage from its original context PPT-EN-01 45
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