2 The Research PaperAn extended, formal composition presenting information gathered from a number of sources.Informational – summarizes factual information from a variety of sources. The writer’s task – focus the topic, find the information, and produce a coherent paper.Analytical – analyzes and makes a conclusion about information. The writer’s task – use persuasive writing to present an opinion.OPINIONOPINION
3 Step One - Topic Choose and limit a topic. This has already been done for you.
4 Step Two - Research As you research, look for answers to the following questions: The Basic SixWho, What, When, Where, Why, and How?
5 Note Cards Bibliography Cards Contain information from the source about the topic – direct quote, summary, paraphraseBibliography CardsContain info on how to find the source – title, author, URL, date of publication, etc.
6 Step Three – Bibliography Cards Contain information about the source – title, author, publication date, URL, etc.Answers the question, “Where did you find this?”
7 Bibliography Card Example 1Last Name, First Name. Title of Work.City, State: Publisher, Publication Date.source numberRefer to MLA packet for correct formatting.
8 Step Four – Note CardsContain information from the source about the topic – direct quote, paraphrase, summary
9 Note Card Example: Each note card should only contain one idea/fact. Zoo—Futurep.263“Zoos of the future will houseendangered species, sponsorbreeding programs, and have fewerbuildings.” William ConwayZoo--Futuresource numberpage numberslugdirect quotesummaryparaphrase
10 Direct Quote – ideas and words taken verbatim from the source, must be enclosed in quotation marks Summary – main ideas only taken from the source and written in your own wordsCredit must still be given to the sourceParaphrase – all ideas taken from the source in the order in which they appeared and written in your own words
11 Step Five – Thesis Step Six - Outline Thesis Statement – A one sentence summary of the paper which must appear in the first paragraph. This will guide your entire paper, so it must be direct, clear, and logical.Step Six - OutlineOutline - A specific format to graphically organize your points and supporting evidence. See the following example.
12 Outline Introduction-Attention Getter, Thesis Statement I. First Main IdeaA. Detail1. Support2. SupportB. DetailII. Second Main IdeaThesis Statementappears in introand conclusion.Each point musthave at least twosupporting details.seeexample
13 Methods of Organization AnalogyCause/EffectChronologicalCompare/ContrastLogical ConnectionsOrder of ImportanceProcessSpatial
14 Step Seven – DraftingOrganize your note cards to correspond with your outline.The introduction must include your thesis statement and an attention getter. Ideas.Each paragraph in the body should be restricted to one idea and have a topic sentence.Use transitional phrases. See examples.The conclusion should restate the thesis statement.Avoid PLAGIARISM – see MLA packet.
15 Step Eight - Revision (First) Is the thesis stated in the first paragraph?Does the introduction catch the reader’s interest?Is it clear how the topic sentence of each subsequent paragraph relates to the thesis?Is each unfamiliar term or idea explained in simple language?Is there any unnecessary repetition?Are sentence patterns varied?Do topic changes flow logically from one to the next?Is there more active vs. passive language?
16 Final RevisionEach item of information in the final paper explains or develops the topic in some way.Important theories, unusual or specific facts, and quotations are cited in the text.If quotations are used, they are placed correctly in the paper. See MLA packet for guidelines.In-text citations and works cited page are correct and standard to MLA format – see step 6.Does your conclusion make sense and is the paper still interesting?
17 In-Text Citations – refer to the MLA packet for guidelines. Step Nine - MLA FormatIn-Text Citations – refer to the MLA packet for guidelines.Works Cited Page
18 Works Cited PageThe works cited page is a typed, alphabetized list of the sources used in the paper. It is reverse indented, single spaced, and double spaced between entries. See example.It is the last page of the paper, and does not count toward the minimum page requirement.
19 Step Ten– Proofread Sentence structure is accurate. Verb tenses are correct, and verbs agree with their subjects.Pronouns are the correct subject or object forms and agree with their antecedents.The writer avoids unnecessary shifts in pronouns, such as I to you or they to you.Capitalization, spelling, and punctuation are correct.Slang and other words or phrases not part of Standard English are used only when appropriate.See proofreader’s marks.
20 Type/MLA Format one inch margins Title: centered Indent 5 spaces Body: Student 1Jane StudentMr. TeacherEnglish 919 April 2002Title of My Paper Belongs HereWhen producing an MLA style essay or paper, format and style arecritical. Margins should be no more than one inch on all sides. Thereare three acceptable fonts: Times New Roman, Courier New,and Arial. The only acceptable font size is 12. The entire essay must bedouble-spaced; there is never a time when extra spacing or singlespacing is needed.There is no title page for an MLA paper. A very specific heading isRunning head½” from top4 line heading:Name/Teacher/Class/Due Date/double spaced/1” marginTitle: centeredIndent5 spacesBody:12 point fontdouble spacedIndent5 spacesone inchmargins
21 A Quick Overview The process is actually quite simple: 1.) Note cards become the outline.2.) The details of the outline become the topic sentences of each paragraph.Watch.
22 Note Card Note Card Note Card Student 4Imagine a disease which spreads so quickly and completelythat it leaves too few living to bury all of the dead. Imagine peoplecaring for the dying, knowing that this caretaking will almostcertainly cause their own deaths.Imagine a disease whose cause and cure are unknown.Such a disease is The Black Death - a name given to thebubonic plague, a fatal disease which ravaged ElizabethanEngland socially, economically, and, most tragically,individually.The Black Death was a tragic disease which decimated acontinent, ravaged a people, and rewrote history. Yada yadayada. I am just writing to fill space so it looks like an authenticpaper. Will any of you notice? Hmmm? It doesn’t even followthe outline. Zoos and the Black Death. Ha, I say. Ha ha ha.Note CardThesis Statement: Improvements in zoo design,education programs and conservationefforts are characteristic of the modern zoo.I. Zoo DesignA. Hagenbeck’s influenceB. The wild animal parkC. Naturalistic exhibitsWorld of birdsTropics exhibitII. Educational programsA. Children’s zoosB. Behavioral showsC. Other InnovationsIII. Conservation of endangered speciesA. The disinterest of older zoosB. The program of modern zoosBreeding loansGolden marmosetISISNote CardNote Card
23 A+ Sanchez 1 Phillip Sanchez Mr. Martin Junior Lit./Comp. 100 19 April 2007The Black Death: Devastation Across EnglandImagine a disease which spreads so quickly and completelythat it leaves too few living to bury all of the dead. Imagine peoplecaring for the dying, knowing that this caretaking will almostcertainly cause their own deaths. Imagine a disease whose causeand cure are unknown. Such a disease is The Black Death - a namegiven to the bubonic plague, a fatal disease which ravagedElizabethan England socially, economically, and, most tragically,individually.A+
24 Special Thanks to The Guide to Grammar and Writing and All English teachers everywhere…
25 Thesis Statement: Improvements in zoo design, education programs and conservationefforts are characteristic of the modern zoo.Zoo DesignA. Hagenbeck’s influenceB. The wild animal parkC. Naturalistic exhibitsWorld of birdsTropics exhibitEducational programsA. Children’s zoosB. Behavioral showsC. Other InnovationsIII. Conservation of endangered speciesA. The disinterest of older zoosB. The program of modern zoosBreeding loansGolden marmosetISISBack toNotes
26 Active Voice vs. Passive Voice A verb is in the active voice when the subject of the verb performs the action.The plague killed Mary.A verb is in the passive voice when the subject receives the action rather than performs it. Hint: form of be + byMary was killed by the plague.Back toNotesPractice
27 Active or Passive? Tom Cruise plays the lead role. The lead role is played by Tom Cruise.A tax hike was suggested by us, the Democrats.We, the Democratic party, suggest a tax hike.Dust and mold make me sneeze.I am made to sneeze by dust and mold.Mommy, the lamp was broken by me.Mommy, I broke the lamp.Back toA vs. P
28 alphabetized double spaced reverse indent Works Cited Austen, Jane. The Complete Novels.Oxford, New York: Oxford UniversityPress, 1994.“Elizabeth I.” 2 Feb<http://www.springfield.k12.edu>.Jones, John. “Readers Read Reeds.”New York Times. 26 May 2002: A 9.“Queen Elizabeth I.” 5 Jan<http://www.geocities.com/eliz/royal/>.Thornton, William.Elizabethan Literature.New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc.,2001.alphabetizeddoublespaced12 point font1 inch marginsreverseindentBack toNotes
29 Transitional Phrases Transitions Uses Back toNotesTransitional PhrasesTransitions Usesfor example, for instance to introduce illustrationsalso, and, another, besides, furthermore, to add illustrationsin addition, moreover, tooalthough, but, despite, however, in the same way, to show comparisons and/orin spite of, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrastsother hand, similarly, still, yetfirst, second, third, eventually, finally, later, to show chronological ordermeanwhile, next, now, presently, then, thereafterabout, above, across, around, at the top, behind, to show spatial orderbelow, beyond, far, far away, here, near, on theleft, on the rightfirst, second, third, least important, more to show order of importanceimportantly, most importantas a result, because, finally, for this reason, to make a conclusion, to indicatein conclusion, therefore, thus, so purpose or a result
30 Ideas to Get Reader’s Attention Compelling fact or statisticPowerful quoteRhetorical questionAnecdote (brief story)Describe problem or conditionBack toNotes
32 Ideas for a ConclusionEnd with a quotation that pulls it all together.Summarize your main ideas (restate your thesis.)Offer a judgment (analytical only).Make a final comment or observation (analytical only).Back toNotes