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The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2. vocabulary Atom the most basic and smallest unit of matter Atom the most basic and smallest unit of matter –Nucleus –Nucleus.

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Presentation on theme: "The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2. vocabulary Atom the most basic and smallest unit of matter Atom the most basic and smallest unit of matter –Nucleus –Nucleus."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2

2 vocabulary Atom the most basic and smallest unit of matter Atom the most basic and smallest unit of matter –Nucleus –Nucleus center of the atom center of the atom holds protons and neutrons holds protons and neutrons –Contains subatomic particles –Contains subatomic particles called protons, electrons and neutrons called protons, electrons and neutrons Discuss next diagram Discuss next diagram

3 Atoms Nucleus; Nucleus; Protons; + charge; mass = 1AMU Protons; + charge; mass = 1AMU Neutrons; no charge; mass = 1AMU Neutrons; no charge; mass = 1AMU Electrons: - charge; no mass Electrons: - charge; no mass

4 vocabulary Element specific atoms of one type form pure substances Element specific atoms of one type form pure substances Over 100 elements/pure substances exist Over 100 elements/pure substances exist Ca calcium Ca calcium H hydrogen H hydrogen O oxygen O oxygen Na sodium Na sodium C carbon C carbon

5 Periodic table Elements are organized in a table and assigned a number Elements are organized in a table and assigned a number Number atomic number Number atomic number Table periodic table Table periodic table This your new friend…at least for this next unit! This your new friend…at least for this next unit! Get use to it Get use to it

6 Atomic Number Defines the element Defines the element Is equal to the number of protons Is equal to the number of protons Is equal to the number of electrons in a neutral atom Is equal to the number of electrons in a neutral atom Always the whole number Always the whole number

7 6 C Carbon Section 2-1 An Element in the Periodic Table Go to Section: Atomic Number Atomic Mass

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9 Is equal to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom Is equal to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom May not be a whole number on the periodic table May not be a whole number on the periodic table In biology you may round up the mass number to a whole number In biology you may round up the mass number to a whole number

10 To find the number of Neutrons Atomic mass – atomic number = Neutrons Atomic mass – atomic number = Neutrons

11 Nonradioactive carbon-12Nonradioactive carbon-13Radioactive carbon-14 6 electrons 6 protons 6 neutrons 6 electrons 6 protons 8 neutrons 6 electrons 6 protons 7 neutrons Isotopes of Carbon Isotopes have the same number of protons and electrons but have a different number of neutrons

12 Time to play… Candium isotope lab!!!

13 Energy Levels 1 st 2e- 2 nd 8e- 3 rd 8e- 4 th 18e-

14 Valence Electrons Outer level Electrons Outer level Electrons Bonding Electrons Bonding Electrons

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21 How are things kept together Ionic Bonds Ionic Bonds Transferring of electrons Transferring of electrons Create ions Create ions Opposite charged particles are attracted to each other Opposite charged particles are attracted to each other Electrons are gained/lost Electrons are gained/lost Covalent bonds Covalent bonds Can create slightly different charges Can create slightly different charges Strongest chemical bond Strongest chemical bond Orbitals/shells overlap and electrons bounce back and forth Orbitals/shells overlap and electrons bounce back and forth Van der Waals forces Van der Waals forces Happens when molecules are super close together Happens when molecules are super close together Hydrogen bonding-weak bonds Hydrogen bonding-weak bonds

22 Drawing molecules showing Ionic Bonding Draw all atoms showing protons, and electrons in their energy levels Draw all atoms showing protons, and electrons in their energy levels Decide which electrons must be transferred in order to fill all of the atoms outer level Decide which electrons must be transferred in order to fill all of the atoms outer level Draw the electrons being transferred Draw the electrons being transferred Show the resulting charge on the Ions Show the resulting charge on the Ions

23 Sodium atom (Na)Chlorine atom (Cl)Sodium ion (Na + )Chloride ion (Cl - ) Transfer of electron Protons +11 Electrons -11 Charge 0 Protons +17 Electrons -17 Charge 0 Protons +11 Electrons -10 Charge +1 Protons +17 Electrons -18 Charge -1 Ionic Bonding

24 Sodium atom (Na)Chlorine atom (Cl)Sodium ion (Na + )Chloride ion (Cl - ) Transfer of electron Protons +11 Electrons -11 Charge 0 Protons +17 Electrons -17 Charge 0 Protons +11 Electrons -10 Charge +1 Protons +17 Electrons -18 Charge -1 Section 2-1 Ionic Bonding

25 Draw the following molecules showing them form ionic bonds KF KF MgCl 2 MgCl 2

26 Chemical formulas CO 2 3 Atoms CO 2 3 Atoms H 2 O3 Atoms H 2 O3 Atoms Ca(OH) 2 5 Atoms Ca(OH) 2 5 Atoms 2C 6 H 12 O 6 48 atoms 2C 6 H 12 O 6 48 atoms

27 Covalent Bonding Sharing of electrons Sharing of electrons No ions are formed No ions are formed Sharing of electrons holds it together. Sharing of electrons holds it together.

28 Guided/independent practice Chemistry worksheet…time to think! Chemistry worksheet…time to think!

29 Water Most abundant compound found in living things. Most abundant compound found in living things. Water is a molecule (H 2 O) Water is a molecule (H 2 O) Water is a polar molecule. (unequal sharing of electrons) Water is a polar molecule. (unequal sharing of electrons) Hand out chemistry worksheet! Hand out chemistry worksheet!

30 Water Facts Facts It is a neutral molecule It is a neutral molecule Water is the single most abundant compound on earth Water is the single most abundant compound on earth It expands when it freezes It expands when it freezes It floats when frozen It floats when frozen What advantage does this play in the survival of fish and plants What advantage does this play in the survival of fish and plants 75% of earth is water 75% of earth is water The human body is 70% water The human body is 70% water Ph of 7.0 Ph of 7.0

31 Properties of Water Its Polar Its Polar It has a negative end and a positive end It has a negative end and a positive end Uneven sharing of electrons Uneven sharing of electrons High heat capacity High heat capacity Absorb Absorb

32 Hydrogen bonds Hydrogen bonds Because of the uneven charge water atoms can attract each other Because of the uneven charge water atoms can attract each other Cohesion: attraction between molecules of the same substance Cohesion: attraction between molecules of the same substance Insects walking on water Insects walking on water Adhesion: attraction between molecules of different substances Adhesion: attraction between molecules of different substances Water drawn up a plant (capillary action) Water drawn up a plant (capillary action)

33 Hydrogen Bonding

34 Water demo Water lab Water lab

35 Acids, Bases, and the pH scale Water is the universal solvent Water is the universal solvent Most compounds will dissolve in water Most compounds will dissolve in water Remember 75% of most animals are water Remember 75% of most animals are water H 2 0 H + + OH - H 2 0 H + + OH - Water Hydrogen ion + Hydroxide ion Water Hydrogen ion + Hydroxide ion Only about one water molecule in 55 million will form a hydrogen ion Only about one water molecule in 55 million will form a hydrogen ion H + = OH -, so water is always neutral H + = OH -, so water is always neutral

36 PH scale – measures the concentration of H+ and OH- ions. PH scale – measures the concentration of H+ and OH- ions. Ranges from 0-14 Ranges from 0-14 At 7 the concentration of H+ and OH- is equal. (pure water) At 7 the concentration of H+ and OH- is equal. (pure water) Acid – H+ ions, 0-6 Acid – H+ ions, 0-6 Alkaline or base- OH- ions, 8-14 Alkaline or base- OH- ions, 8-14 Each step represents a factor of 10 Each step represents a factor of 10

37 Oven cleaner Bleach Ammonia solution Soap Sea water Human blood Pure water Milk Normal rainfall Acid rain Tomato juice Lemon juice Stomach acid Neutral Increasingly Basic Increasingly Acidic pH Scale Go to Section:

38 Acids Any compound that gives off a hydrogen ion (H + ) in a solution. –HCl –Stomach acid –Lemon juice –Tomato juice

39 Bases Any compound that will produce hydroxide ions (OH - ) in a solution. –Human blood –Sea water –Oven cleaner –Bleach –soap

40 Time to play… Ph lab

41 Buffers Facts –Most cells in animals must generally be kept at a pH level between 6.5 and 7.5 Human blood has a pH of 7.4 –If the bodys pH level goes to high or too low then cells do not work –Maintaining pH levels is important for homeostasis –Large changes in pH are controlled by substances called buffers

42 Examples of buffer in the bodys cells –Carbonic Acid (H 2 CO 3 ) –(H 2 CO 3 ) HCO H + –Carbonic acid dissociates in water to form bicarbonate ion and H ions

43 Chemical Reactions Everything that happens in an organism is based on chemical reactions Definition: a chemical reaction is a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals –Cellular respiration –Formation of Carbonic Acid from carbon dioxide and water

44 Mixture 2 or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined. 2 or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined. Salt & pepper Salt & pepper Earths atmosphere Earths atmosphere Salad Salad soil soil

45 Solutions Evenly distributed throughout. Solvent; does the dissolving Solute; gets dissolved Water is the greatest solvent.

46 Cl - Water Cl - Na + Water Na + NaCI Solution

47 Cl - Water Cl - Na + Water Na +

48 Suspension Unevenly distributed throughout. (settle out) Unevenly distributed throughout. (settle out) Water & gas Water & gas Water & oil Water & oil Blood Blood

49 4 Organic Compounds Carbon Compounds include that consist of which contain that consist of which contain CarbohydratesLipidsNucleic acidsProteins Sugars and starches Fats and oilsNucleotidesAmino Acids Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus Carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen,

50 Organic Compounds Organic compounds contains Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

51 Carbohydrates Main source of energy Monosaccharide (simple sugar) Glucose – produced by green plants. Glucose – produced by green plants. Fructose – fruits, vegetables, honey. Fructose – fruits, vegetables, honey. Disaccharides (double sugar) Lactose – mammals milk. Lactose – mammals milk. Sucrose – table sugar. Sucrose – table sugar. Polysaccharides (complex sugar) Cellulose (plants) Cellulose (plants) Starch (plants) Starch (plants) Glycogen (animals) Glycogen (animals)

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53 Glucose Plants store carbohydrates as Starch Go to Section:

54 Animals store carbohydrates as Glycogen in the liver and muscles

55 Lipids Stored energy Fatty acids Saturated fatty acids – meat & dairy. Unsaturated fatty acids – plants. PhospholipidsWaxesOilsSteroids

56 Lipids What is it? Fat, oils, and waxes Fat, oils, and waxes Lipid cells together are know as adipose tissue, hey look at that spare tire! Lipid cells together are know as adipose tissue, hey look at that spare tire! Adipose tissue acts to cushion vital organs Once your body creates a fat cell, it is yours for life, you can never get rid of it! Functions Stores a huge amount of energy, even more than that carbohydrates Stores a huge amount of energy, even more than that carbohydrates But it is used for emergency situations when you run out of carbohydrates But it is used for emergency situations when you run out of carbohydrates

57 Types of lipids found in animals HDL Known as the good lipid Known as the good lipid Found in vegetables, oils, and some nuts Found in vegetables, oils, and some nuts Helps clear out LDL of you system Helps clear out LDL of you system Exercise will increase the levels of HDL in an animals system Exercise will increase the levels of HDL in an animals systemLDLTriglycerides

58 Proteins Made up of Amino acids 20 different amino acids Structural- cell, muscle, skin, organs. MovementEnzymes

59 Proteins Examples of proteins Muscle, insulin, hair Muscle, insulin, hairFacts Accounts for %50 of cells weight Accounts for %50 of cells weight Used for support, storage, transport defense, signaling other cells Used for support, storage, transport defense, signaling other cells Humans have 10s of thousands of different proteins Humans have 10s of thousands of different proteins Are made of monomers called amino acids Are made of monomers called amino acids There are 20 different amino acids There are 20 different amino acids

60 What makes a protein function The order of the amino acids The order of the amino acids Each protein has a specific order The shape of a protein determines its function The shape of a protein determines its function Homeostasis: too much acid-proteins unfold. To high a temperature: proteins unfold, to cold: proteins cant function

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66 3-D Protein

67 Nucleic Acids Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Contains genetic information Controls the production of proteins Nucleotides Phosphate Phosphate Sugar Sugar base base

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71 Enzymes Some reactions that are needed in life are too slow to happen by themselves. To speed up these reactions cell in plants and animals produce catalysts. A substance that speeds up chemical reactions A substance that speeds up chemical reactions They work by lowering the activation energy They work by lowering the activation energy Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts Always end in ase Always end in ase Lactase, carbonic anhydrase Lactase, carbonic anhydrase Very specific Very specific

72 Catalyst Substance that reduces the amount of energy for a reaction to occur. Catalyst in cells are proteins called Enzymes. The substance that the enzyme works on are called a substrate. Enzymes are very selective.

73 Enzyme animation enzymeanimation3.gif enzymeanimation3.gif

74 Reaction pathway without enzyme Activation energy without enzyme Activation energy with enzyme Reaction pathway with enzyme Reactants Products Section 2-4 Effect of Enzymes Go to Section:

75 Time to play… Enzyme lab Organic compounds lab


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