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CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 1-3. SCIENTIFIC METHOD Flemming and penicillin Flemming and penicillin Pasteur Pasteur Scientific method Scientific method.

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Presentation on theme: "CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 1-3. SCIENTIFIC METHOD Flemming and penicillin Flemming and penicillin Pasteur Pasteur Scientific method Scientific method."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 1-3

2 SCIENTIFIC METHOD Flemming and penicillin Flemming and penicillin Pasteur Pasteur Scientific method Scientific method

3 MATTER Anything that has mass and occupies space Weight Measure of earths gravity Mass Measure of the quantity of matter Law of conservation of matter Matter cannot be created or destroyed S States of matter Solid Liquid Gas

4

5 TYPES OF MATTER ELEMENTS ELEMENTS Cannot be broken apart chemically Cannot be broken apart chemically 112 known elements 112 known elements Only 91 occur naturally Only 91 occur naturally COMPOUND COMPOUND Made up of elements, but properties are different Made up of elements, but properties are different Ratio of elements in a compound the same Ratio of elements in a compound the same Formed by chemical reactions (change) Formed by chemical reactions (change) PURE SUBSTANCES PURE SUBSTANCES Same composition and properties throughout Same composition and properties throughout Cannot be separated into other substances without changing its identity and properties Cannot be separated into other substances without changing its identity and properties

6 MIXTURES Two or more pure substances mixed together, but they retain all their original chemical and physical properties Two or more pure substances mixed together, but they retain all their original chemical and physical properties HETEROGENOUS HETEROGENOUS SUBSTANCES ARE IN DIFFERENT PHASES SUBSTANCES ARE IN DIFFERENT PHASES Blood, wood, granite Blood, wood, granite HOMOGENOUS HOMOGENOUS Substances are in the same phase Substances are in the same phase Salt water, air Salt water, air

7 SI UNITS Length is measured in METERS m Length is measured in METERS m Mass is measured in KILOGRAMS kg Mass is measured in KILOGRAMS kg Time is measured in SECONDS s Time is measured in SECONDS s Temperature is measured in KELVIN K Temperature is measured in KELVIN K Amount of substance is Amount of substance is measured in MOLES mol measured in MOLES mol

8 METRIC PREFIX Giga G 10 9 There are 10 9 units (puppies) in Giga G 10 9 There are 10 9 units (puppies) in Mega M gigapuppy Mega M gigapuppy Kilo k 10 3 Kilo k 10 3 Hecto h 10 2 Hecto h 10 2 Deca da 10 1 Deca da 10 1 Unit (anything can be a unit) Unit (anything can be a unit) Common chemistry units gram, liter, meter, second, watt Common chemistry units gram, liter, meter, second, watt Deci d 10 1 There are 10 1 decigrams in 1 gram Deci d 10 1 There are 10 1 decigrams in 1 gram Centi c 10 2 Centi c 10 2 Milli m 10 3 Milli m 10 3 Micro u 10 6 Micro u 10 6 Nano n 10 9 Nano n 10 9

9 ELEMENT QUIZ #1 1. H 1. H 2. HELIUM 2. HELIUM 3. Si 3. Si 4. NITROGEN 4. NITROGEN 5. Be 5. Be 6. BORON 6. BORON 7. Li 7. Li 8. SODIUM 8. SODIUM 9. Al 9. Al 10. NEON 10. NEON 11. F 11. F 12. OXYGEN 12. OXYGEN 13. Mg 13. Mg 14. CARBON 14. CARBON 15. Cl 15. Cl 16. SULFUR 16. SULFUR 17. P 17. P

10 CONVERSION THINGS TO REMEMBER THINGS TO REMEMBER In the metric system, the smaller prefix unit will always have a larger number than the prefix unit it is equal to. In the metric system, the smaller prefix unit will always have a larger number than the prefix unit it is equal to m = 1km (overhead) 1000 m = 1km (overhead) METER IS A SMALLER PREFIX UNIT METER IS A SMALLER PREFIX UNIT Kelvin is absolute zero or o C. You can not have a temperature lower than this so KELVIN CAN NEVER BE A NEGATIVE NUMBER Kelvin is absolute zero or o C. You can not have a temperature lower than this so KELVIN CAN NEVER BE A NEGATIVE NUMBER o C = K o C = K K = o C K = o C

11 TEMPERATURE Celsius ( o C) Celsius ( o C) Freezing of water 0 o C Freezing of water 0 o C Boiling of water 100 o C Boiling of water 100 o C o F = 1.8( o C) + 32 o F = 1.8( o C) + 32 Convert the following temperatures Convert the following temperatures 323 K to o C 323 K to o C -20 o C to K -20 o C to K 129 K to o F 129 K to o F

12 ELEMENT QUIZ #2 1. Cu 1. Cu 2. ARGON 2. ARGON 3. Kr 3. Kr 4. GALLIUM 4. GALLIUM 5. Fe 5. Fe 6. CALCIUM 6. CALCIUM 7. K 7. K 8. COBALT 8. COBALT 9. Mn 9. Mn 10. NICKEL 10. NICKEL 11. Br 11. Br 12. ZINC 12. ZINC 13. Cr 13. Cr 14. SELENIUM 14. SELENIUM 15. U 15. U 16. ARSENIC 16. ARSENIC 17. Ge 17. Ge

13 ELEMENT QUIZ #3 1. I 1. I 2. SILVER 2. SILVER 3. Pd 3. Pd 4. RUBIDIUM 4. RUBIDIUM 5. Sn 5. Sn 6. XENON 6. XENON 7. Sb 7. Sb 8. CESIUM 8. CESIUM 9. W 9. W 10. CADMIUM 10. CADMIUM 11. Te 11. Te 12. PLATINUM 12. PLATINUM 13. Ba 13. Ba 14. STRONTIUM 14. STRONTIUM 15. Pu 15. Pu 16. MERCURY 16. MERCURY 17. Pb 17. Pb 18. GOLD 18. GOLD

14 PROPERTIES AND CHANGES PHYSICAL PHYSICAL Properties Properties Extensive- can change; weight, volume, etc. Extensive- can change; weight, volume, etc. Intensive- remains the same; density, boiling or freezing points Intensive- remains the same; density, boiling or freezing points Changes Changes Properties do not change Properties do not change Rip paper, ice to liquid water Rip paper, ice to liquid water CHEMICAL CHEMICAL Properties Properties What makes a substance identity What makes a substance identity Change Change Any substance that undergoes a chemical reaction (reactants) and forms a new substance (products) Any substance that undergoes a chemical reaction (reactants) and forms a new substance (products) Endothermic and exothermic Endothermic and exothermic

15 INDICATIONS OF A CHEMICAL CHANGE Evolution (forming) heat and light Evolution (forming) heat and light Production of a gas Production of a gas Formation of a precipitate (solid) when two liquids are mixed together Formation of a precipitate (solid) when two liquids are mixed together

16 ENERGY THREE TYPES OF ENERGY THREE TYPES OF ENERGY Chemical Chemical Electrical mechanical Electrical mechanical DEFINITION DEFINITION Ability to cause change or the ability to do work Ability to cause change or the ability to do work KINETIC ENERGY KINETIC ENERGY An object in motion An object in motion POTENTIAL ENERGY POTENTIAL ENERGY An object is at rest which allows it to be used as energy An object is at rest which allows it to be used as energy


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