Presentation on theme: " Printing was expensive, transportation expensive, and few large advertisers, circulation was small and confined to the elite who could afford costly."— Presentation transcript:
Printing was expensive, transportation expensive, and few large advertisers, circulation was small and confined to the elite who could afford costly subscriptions (editors were paid as government employees) The coverage was subsequently partisan and one sided (bias) Newspapers covered only local news and slowly disseminated national or international news
People begin move closer together (thus dropping transportation costs) and government or party media subsidies decline 1840 – the development of the telegraph means news can be flashed everywhere (We see the emergence of the “inverted pyramid” news format) 1848– The Associated Press begins – the desire to sell the service nationwide means that the service presents the news objectively › Media (and possibly media bias) is now the product of publishers (Hearst and Pulitzer), editor, and reporters but not controlled by government or party Media discovers the value and profitability of criticizing government and revealing scandals › (Begin to see the emergence of a common political culture)
Magazines of Opinion (emerges around 1900) › focused on political issues and guided by the values of the progressive movement (The Nation, Harper’s, Atlantic Monthly) › Emergence of investigative journalism or “muckraking” sensationalistic and sometimes inaccurate but aimed at fighting for “the little guy” – adversarial nature of the press In the late 1900s the emphasis of the magazines begins to shift from political news to popular entertainment, fashion, funnies, sports etc...
Media’s tone becomes more moderate › As times go by the flamboyant founders of the popular press are replaced by professional managers › (Readers become more sophisticated) › Circulation wars fade as papers begin to buy each other out – ie less competition to attract readers
1920’s - radio, late 1940s - television › Advantage: politicians can speak to voters directly, importance of visual impact not lost › Disadvantage: time is costly (less news is covered), stations resist giving uninterrupted time to anyone (unless they pay) because people get easily bored Candidates need to do something controversial (i.e. go negative) or spend $$$ (incidentally, the electronic media is far more regulated by the government than the print media)
Following the increasingly negative coverage of the Vietnam war and the Watergate scandal that was revealed by two reporters from the Washington Post the media has come to view the American government with suspicion › The watch dog role has been more pronounced than during 1940s, 1950s, and early 1960s.
Centralization of ownership: Media conglomerates are absorbing newspapers, radio stations, and TV stations that were once owned by families or small corporations › ***(concerns that this centralization is muffling the marketplace of ideas)*** Nationalization of news: While there is a variety of coverage of local news there are fewer sources of national news › caused by fewer news outlets, pack journalism, and common media values › the result is a common political culture but if a story is missed it is really missed › there is a greater variety of local news
Sound bites are shortening 42 seconds in 1968, 10 seconds in 1988 The three major networks are facing declining market share to cable, Internet Call-in formats (Larry King) and talk shows (Oprah, Arsenio Hall, Letterman)
Radio › Dominance by right-wing commentators is being criticized by the left i.e.- Hannity Newspapers › There are fewer and fewer large, daily newspapers with most big cities now being served by just a single newspaper declining readership especially among the young
Internet › Much optimism that it would enlarge marketplace of ideas › Would be the perfect host for a global political forum, provide alternative sources of information › allow candidates to cheaply speak to the voters – but not much evidence it is becoming a dominant political forum Sources of information are often the same as mainstream media Original Journalism from Web can be beset by inaccuracy and bias (Matt Drudge)
Option A: › Write 2 stories or 2 articles or 2 exposé from 2 different eras of press about a current problem in America or your community… Party press Popular Press- Yellow journalism press/sensationalism Radio/TV/Internet Option B: › Write 1 story or 1 articles or 1 exposé from 1 of the eras of press and draw 1 magazine cover about your topic about a current problem in America or your community… Party press Popular Press- Yellow journalism press/sensationalism Radio/TV/Internet