Presentation on theme: "You Are the Emergency Medical Responder"— Presentation transcript:
1You Are the Emergency Medical Responder Lesson 38: PediatricsYou Are the Emergency Medical ResponderYou are working as the camp health officer at a local summer camp when a young girl approaches you complaining that she has a rash. She says that she is allergic to certain things and may have come into contact with something that has now given her hives.
2Anatomical Differences Larger tongueNose breathing (newborns and infants)Higher epiglottisNarrower tracheaMore rapid and shallower breathing
3Age Groups For the purpose of providing emergency medical care: Infants: younger than 1 yearChildren: between the ages of 1 and 12 years (1 to years of age for AED)Adults: about 12 years or older
4Child Development Infant: birth to 1 year Toddler: 1 to 3 years Preschooler: 3 to 5 yearsSchool-age child: 6 to 12 yearsAdolescent: 13 to 18 years
5General Approach to Pediatric Assessment Carefully observe without touching the childObserve for breathing, presence of blood, movement and general appearancePerform head-to-toe assessment unless child is agitated or upset, then perform toe-to-head assessmentBe alert for signs of other possible issues, such as child abuse or poisoning
7Assessment of Level of Consciousness AVPU scalePupil response to light
8SAMPLE History Ensure parent or caregiver cooperation Remain respectful and politeAsk questions requiring detailed answersEncourage child participationAllow for privacy for an older child or adolescent
9SAMPLE History Components SymptomsAllergiesMedicationsPertinent past medical historyLast oral intakeEvents leading up to injury or illness
10Physical Exam Components Head: bruising or swellingEars: drainage suggesting trauma or infectionMouth: loose teeth, odors or bleedingNeck: abnormal bruisingChest and back: bruises, injuries or rashesExtremities: deformities, swelling or pain on movement
11Care During a Physical Exam Crouch down to child’s eye level.Speak calmly and softly.Maintain eye contactBe gentle; never lose your temper.
12ActivityYou are called to the local playground to evaluate a 4-year-old child who has fallen backward off the steps of a slide. The child’s mother states that her daughter was on the fourth step (of five) when she suddenly slipped and fell. The child is lying on her back and crying quietly.
13Airway Obstructions Common emergency problem in children and infants Categorized as either partial or complete obstructions
14Anatomical Differences and Breathing Emergencies Larger tongueSmaller airwayShorter tracheaDiaphragmatic breathing (older children and adolescents)Nose breathing (young children and infants)
16ActivityYou are called to the home of a young couple who called because their 4 year old collapsed and started shaking. The parents say, “He was sitting on the floor playing with his toys, and then all of sudden he fell over and his whole body started making these strange jerky movements.”
18Circulatory FailureCardiac emergencies are rare in children and infants.Typically they are caused by a respiratory emergency.Management: assisting with breathing, observing for signs of cardiac arrest, performing CPR and using an AED
19SeizuresIrregular electrical activity of the brain causing loss of body controlCauses:Fever (most common)Head traumaEpilepsy or other seizure disordersLow blood glucosePoisoningHypoxiaSerious infections
20Seizure Management Prevent injury Protect airway Ensure open airway after seizure has ended
21Fever Elevation in body temperature, typically indicating infection Management:Gentle coolingRemoval of excess clothingNo ice water or alcohol bathsNo aspirin or aspirin-containing products
22Poisoning5th leading cause of unintentional death in the United StatesUsually due to ingestion of household cleaning products, medications and small, solid objects like batteries, particularly the watch-sized batteries found in many children’s toys.
23ShockThe body’s reaction to physical or emotional trauma, infection, vomiting or diarrhea (most common in children)Altered mental status is a strong indicatorManagement:Laying the child flatConstant monitoring of respiratory and circulatory status
24Altered Mental Status Many possible causes Management: Open airway Emergency oxygenRecovery position
25Trauma Number one cause of death in children Many the result of motor-vehicle collisions leading to airway obstruction and bleedingManagement:Open airwayBleeding controlAssessment of other body injuriesComfort to the child and family
26Child Abuse and Neglect Non-accidental traumaPhysicalPsychologicalSexualExample: shaken baby syndromeLegal obligation to report suspicion
27SIDSOccurs in infants younger than 1 year, most often between the ages of 4 weeks and 7 monthsUsually occurs during sleepNo link to any disease
28ALTE Occurs in infants younger than 1 year Signs include: Apnea Change in colorChange in muscle toneCoughing or gagging
29Children with Special Needs Additional health concernsParents provide most information because they are the most familiar with the medical equipment used by the childNever make assumptions about a child’s mental capacity if child is not able to express thoughts or wordsAlways speak directly to the child
30You Are the Emergency Medical Responder As you continue to monitor the child's condition, you notice that the hives have spread beyond the affected area.