2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Building on Theory 4. Language 5. Teaching and Learning 6. Closing Thoughts
3 [Video: Middle Childhood – Cognitive Development Introduction] Introduction
4 Fact or Fiction?FictionFact 1. During middle childhood, cognitive processes become logical and abstract. 2. The basic cognitive processing capacity of school children does not differ greatly from that of preschoolers. 3. Many children between ages 7 and 11 excel at switching between formal and informal forms of language. 4. The best strategy for teaching a school-age child whose language is a nonstandard form is to conduct all instruction in Standard English. Cognitive Development
Fritz is taller than Daphne. Daphne is taller than Nino. Who is taller: Fritz or Nino? NinoDaphneFritz According to Piaget, how would a 4-year-old answer? A 4-year-old cannot yet think with logic; the question would stump the child. According to Piaget, how would a 9-year-old answer? A 9-year-old has reached concrete operational thought and will probably answer correctly that Fritz is taller. 5 Piaget and School Age Children concrete operational thought: Piagets term for the ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions.
6 Piaget and School Age Children [Video: A Journey Through Middle Childhood: Clip D]
Information Processing 7 metacognition: Thinking about thinking, or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust ones performance on that task. What is metacognition and how do children use it to solve problems? For example, in an experiment, researchers (Klahr & Nigam, 2004) asked 112 third- and fourth-grade children to create experiments in which variables were controlled. They used the ramps you see here. Using these same ramps, how would you design a scientific experiment to determine the effect of distance or steepness?
In one study of more than 1,000 third and fifth graders in 10 U.S. cities, what three factors (related to intellectual activity) correlated with high-scoring students? FACTOR families (parents who read to them during toddlerhood) preschool programs (with a variety of learning activities) first grade (with literacy emphasis with individual evaluation) guided participation: The process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations. scaffolding: Temporary support that is tailored to a learners needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): In sociocultural theory, a metaphorical area, or zone, surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close (proximal) to acquiring but cannot yet master without help. 8 Vygotsky and School-Age Children
Does this student mean what she says… and what she does? Professor Pragmatics 10 pragmatics: The practical use of language that includes the ability to adjust language communication according to audience and context. Hey, whats up? Student
11 Pragmatics [Video: A Journey Through Middle Childhood: Clip B]
What are some second-language learning strategies? Second-Language Learning immersion A strategy in which instruction in all school subjects occurs in the second (usually the majority) language that child is learning. 12 bilingual schooling A strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learners original language and the second (majority) language. Learning a second language ESL (English as a second language) An approach to teaching English in which all children who do not speak English are placed together in an intensive course to learn basic English so that they can be educated in the same classroom as native English speakers.
13 Phonics approach: Teaching reading by first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various letter combinations. Whole-language approach: Teaching reading by encouraging early use of all language skillstalking and listening, reading and writing. Curriculum In the United States, what are the two basic approaches for learning reading and math? Greater emphasis on basic math skills Encourage a broader, conceptual understanding of the subjects in math
The Outcome National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP): An ongoing and nationally representative measure of U.S. childrens achievement in reading, mathematics, and other subjects over time; the NAEP is nicknamed the Nations Report Card. Rating Fourth-Graders Reading Proficiency: The Gap Between NAEP and the States What are the local standards U.S. states set for childrens reading proficiency? 0-20 21-40 41-60 61+ Percetage-Point Difference in State vs. Federal Proficiency Ratings 15 Source: EPE Research Center, in D.J. Hoff, 2007, p.23.
The Outcome Trends in Math and Science Study (TIMSS): An international assessment of the math and science skills of fourth- and eighth-graders. What were international math achievement outcomes for fourth-graders in 2007? 16 Source: TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report (Mullis et al., 2008). TIMSS Ranking and Average Scores of Math Achievement for Fourth-Graders, 2007 Rank*Score 1.667 2.599 3.576 4.568 5.549 6.544 7.541 8.537 9.535 10.531 11.530 12.525 523 519 516 512 507 492 402 355 224 Country Hong Kong Singapore China/Taipei Japan Kazakhstan Russian Federation England Latvia Netherlands United States Lithuania Germany Denmark Canada/Quebec Australia Hungary Canada/Ontario Italy New Zealand Iran Columbia Yemen
Education Wars and Assumptions The best approach is vouchers! I support parents right to choose the school for their child, with some or all of the cost of thats childs education borne by the local government. Vouchers will allow parents to choose either public or private schools. The best approach is charter schools! I support public schools with their own set of standards that are funded and licensed by the state or local district in which they are located. The best approach is not to drain public funds from public schools into vouchers and charter schools, but to better manage public education, by allowing the rewarding of good teachers and methods with merit pay and protection from firing rather than basing these on seniority!
18 Education Wars and Assumptions [Video: University of California Links Program: Clip B]
What are some gender differences in school performance? Culture, Gender and Education In middle childhood, girls typically get higher grades than boys do. Then, at puberty, girls achievement dips.(Williams & Ceci, 2007) Processing speed develops more slowly in boys, a finding that implies the existence of differences in male and female brains. (Camarata & Woodcock, 2006) 19
20 Culture and Education [Video: Educating the Girls of the World: Two Girls from Bangladesh and Mali Who Want to Go to School]
21 Culture and Education [Video: Educating the Girls of the World: Barriers to the Girls Attending School]
22 Culture and Education [Video: Educating the Girls of the World: The United Nations and Girls Education]
23 Closing Thoughts How can we use what we know about cognitive development to best plan education for kids in middle childhood?