Presentation on theme: "Prologue: Psychologys Roots Definition of Psychology The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts,"— Presentation transcript:
Prologue: Psychologys Roots Definition of Psychology The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings) Psyche – Soul Logos – The Study of
Prologue: Psychologys Roots Prescientific Psychology Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? Aristotle (heart) Plato (head) Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience? Are we controlled by natural elements or supernatural elements? Religion vs. Science Religion/Supernatural Hippocrates/Natural Galen/4 Greek Humors Gall/Phrenology
Prologue: Psychologys Roots
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology zJohn Locke empiricist; believed that knowledge is acquired solely through life experiences. Tabula Rasa: blank tablet Claimed each of us is born a blank slate on which are written the life experiences we acquire through our senses. (Plato believed just the opposite)
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology zRene Descartes rationalist; insisted we should doubt everything that is not proved by our own reasoning. True knowledge comes through correct reasoning and it is inborn.
Prologue: Psychologys Roots Psychological Science Is Born Empiricism Knowledge comes from experience via the senses Science flourishes through observation and experiment
Wilhelm Wundt Wundt is referred to as the father of psychology because in 1879 he started the first laboratory in psychology for studying humans. He broke into parts the elements of feelings and thought. Using a procedure called introspection he introduced scientific procedure to study feelings.
Prologue: Psychologys Roots Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structures or atoms of the human mind
Other Pioneers zG. Stanley Hall ( ) yWundts student, brought lab to USA at Johns Hopkins University zEdward Titchener (1867–1927) yWundts student, professor at Cornell University zWilliam James (1842–1910) ystarted psychology at Harvard in 1870s yopposed Wundt and Titcheners approach yfunctionalism – influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment zSigmund Freud (1856–1939) yAustrian physician that focused on illness ypsychoanalytic theory of mental disorders
E. B. Titchener (1867–1927)
William James In 1890, he published Principles of Psychology. The book was 1400 pages long, two volumes in length and it took him 12 years to write. Unlike Wundt, he did not want to break behavior into parts; instead, he never wanted to lose sight of the individual as a whole. His goal was to uncover the functions of the mind …FUNCTIONALISM James is considered to be one of the founders of American psychology.
Prologue: Psychologys Roots Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
Other Pioneers zJohn B. Watson (1878–1958) ypsychologists should study overt behavior yAdapted Pavlovian learning theory to humans zB. F. Skinner (1904–1990) yAmerican psychologist at Harvard ystudied learning and effect of reinforcement ybehaviorism
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychologys Big Issues Stability vs. Change Do our individual traits persist as we age? Do we become older versions of ourselves?
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology zRationality vs. Irrationality yRationality– reasonableness, good sense of equity and proportion yIrrationality– not reasonable in thinking or behaving, distorted perception of reality
Philosophical Developments Another Question: Nature vs. Nurture zthe relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors zAre abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? zWhat are the interactions between genetics and environment? zWhat effect does it have on behavior?
Approaches to Psychology Biological Behavioral Psychoanalytic Humanistic Cognitive Sociocultural
A. Biological/Neuroscience Perspective zSzStudy the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior zFzFocus may be at various levels yiyindividual neurons yayareas of the brain ysyspecific functions like eating, emotion, or learning zIzInterest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences
B. Evolutionary Perspective zInfluenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns zApplication of principles of evolution to explain behavior and psychological processes
On the Origin of Species was published in His theory was that humans and animals had evolved and changed. His theory inspired scientists to study animals in order to understand human behavior. Charles Darwin
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Natural selection principle that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Charles Darwin
C. Behavior-Genetics Perspective zInfluenced by Nature vs. Nurture Debate zHow do our genes influence behavior and how does our environment influence our mental processes?
John B. Watson Watson studied the impact of learning on people. This led to the school of behaviorism. He believed that careful and structured parenting could eliminate psychological problems. Watson later wrote a book applying scientific methods to raising children.
The Behavioral Approach This approach emphasizes that behavior is primarily the result of learning and not due to a persons thoughts and unconscious processes. People such as B. F. Skinner (pictured to the left) and John B. Watson are called behaviorists.
D. Behavioral Perspective zView of behavior based on experience or learning yClassical conditioning yOperant conditioning
E. Cognitive Perspective zHow is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior? zInfluences include yWortheimer, Kohler, Koffka – Gestalt xFind the whole pattern of our perceptions yPiaget – studied intellectual development yChomsky – studied language yCybernetics – science of information processing
F. The Sociocultural Approach This approach looks at the impact that society, culture, ethnicity, race, and religion have on personality. Psychoanalytic Cognitive
Cross-Cultural Perspective zThe study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups zHow are peoples thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture? zWhat are the common elements across culture? Are these innate?
Sigmund Freud Freud developed the first comprehensive theory of human development and behavior, especially how the personality develops. He believed that childhood memories and thoughts influenced the behavior of people when they became adults.
G. Psychodynamic Perspective zView of behavior based on experience treating patients zPsychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud) yboth a method of treatment and a theory of the mind ybehavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences ydrives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behavior yearly childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations
H. Humanistic Perspective zDzDeveloped by Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers ybybehavior reflects innate actualization yfyfocus on conscious forces and self perception ymymore positive view of basic forces than Freuds
The Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers is the best known of the humanists. This approach emphasizes that people have free will, self-concepts and are basically good. Humanists believe that every person can fulfill his or her potential.
Carl Rogers (1902–1987)Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)
Psychology should study how behavior and mental processes allow organisms to adapt to their environments School/Approach Evolutionary perspective FounderCharles Darwin
Psychology should emphasize peoples unique potential for psychological growth School/ApproachHumanistic FounderMaslow
Psychology should only study observable behavior? School/ApproachBehaviorism FounderWatson/Skinner
Which Perspective? Emily is anxious because of a hormonal imbalance. Once the doctors prescribe the right medicine, she feels normal again.
Which Perspective? Samantha wont acknowledge that she has an addiction. Shed rather lie to herself than admit the truth. Even though she wants to quit, she keeps going back to the same old habits. Each time she finds herself giving in to her urges and using, she finds a way to forget it ever happened so she doesnt feel guilty.
Which Perspective? Betty is a naughty child because her parents never give her consequences and they always give in to her demands. She often throws tantrums and acts out at the grocery store because she knows they will buy her treats to keep her quiet. They are training her to have a naughty personality.
Which Perspective? Bob is depressed because he keeps thinking self-defeating thoughts. He never looks at the bright side of things. Once he gets into a negative mood, his thoughts spiral him down emotionally into a state of depression.
Which Perspective? Fernando would like to be on the varsity team before he graduates. He sets a goal to works every day throughout the off season to get better. However, his parents didnt think it is worth his time. They make him get a summer job. When tryouts arrive, he is not selected for the team. He feels defeated and his self-esteem suffers, causing him to perform poorly in school.
Which Perspective? Roger spent his entire childhood in a rough neighborhood. He learned that fighting is part of life. When he moved to a new neighborhood his junior year, his parents were embarrassed by the number of times he got suspended for fighting. If only the administration knew where hes really coming from….
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychologys Perspectives A lot depends on your viewpoint
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychologys Subfields Basic Research Physiological psychologists explore the links between brain and mind Developmental psychologists study changing abilities from womb to tomb Cognitive psychologists study how we perceive, think, and solve problems
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychologys Subfields Basic Research Personality psychologists investigate our persistent traits Social psychologists explore how we view and affect one another
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychologys Subfields Applied Research Industrial/organizational psychologists study and advise on behavior in the workplace Clinical psychologists study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders
Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychiatry A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders Practiced by physicians who sometimes use medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy