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Prologue: Psychology’s Roots

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1 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
Definition of Psychology The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings) Psyche – Soul Logos – The Study of

2 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
Prescientific Psychology Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? Aristotle (heart) Plato (head) Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience? Are we controlled by natural elements or supernatural elements? Religion vs. Science Religion/Supernatural Hippocrates/Natural Galen/4 Greek Humors Gall/Phrenology

3 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots

4 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
John Locke empiricist; believed that knowledge is acquired solely through life experiences. Tabula Rasa: blank tablet Claimed each of us is born a blank slate on which are written the life experiences we acquire through our senses. (Plato believed just the opposite)

5 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Rene Descartes rationalist; insisted we should doubt everything that is not proved by our own reasoning. True knowledge comes through correct reasoning and it is inborn.

6 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
Psychological Science Is Born Empiricism Knowledge comes from experience via the senses Science flourishes through observation and experiment

7 Wilhelm Wundt Wundt is referred to as the “father of psychology” because in 1879 he started the first laboratory in psychology for studying humans. He broke into parts the elements of feelings and thought. Using a procedure called “introspection” he introduced scientific procedure to study feelings.

8 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structures or “atoms” of the human mind

9 Other Pioneers G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
Wundt’s student, brought lab to USA at John’s Hopkins University Edward Titchener (1867–1927) Wundt’s student, professor at Cornell University William James (1842–1910) started psychology at Harvard in 1870s opposed Wundt and Titchener’s approach functionalism – influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Austrian physician that focused on illness psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders Keywords: William James, functionalism

10 P. 5. Discovering psy. E. B. Titchener (1867–1927)

11 William James James is considered to be one of the founders of American psychology. In 1890, he published Principles of Psychology. The book was 1400 pages long, two volumes in length and it took him 12 years to write. Unlike Wundt, he did not want to break behavior into parts; instead, he never wanted to lose sight of the individual as a whole. His goal was to uncover the “functions” of the mind …FUNCTIONALISM

12 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

13 Other Pioneers John B. Watson (1878–1958) B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)
psychologists should study overt behavior Adapted Pavlovian learning theory to humans B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) American psychologist at Harvard studied learning and effect of reinforcement behaviorism

14 p. 8 Discovering psy John B. Watson (1878–1958)

15 p. 8 Discovering psy B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)

16 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
Psychological Science Develops Wundt--German philosopher and physiologist James--American philosopher Pavlov--Russian physiologist Freud--Austrian physician Piaget--Swiss biologist Wortheimer, Kohler, Koffka – Czech perceptual psychologists

17 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Psychology’s Big Issues Stability vs. Change Do our individual traits persist as we age? Do we become older versions of ourselves?

18 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Rationality vs. Irrationality Rationality– reasonableness, good sense of equity and proportion Irrationality– not reasonable in thinking or behaving, distorted perception of reality

19 Philosophical Developments
BIG Another Question: Nature vs. Nurture the relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors Are abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? What are the interactions between genetics and environment? What effect does it have on behavior? Keywords: materialism, empiricism, nativism

20 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Psychology’s Perspectives

21 Approaches to Psychology
Biological Behavioral Psychoanalytic Humanistic Cognitive Sociocultural

22 A. Biological/Neuroscience Perspective
Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior Focus may be at various levels individual neurons areas of the brain specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences Keywords: physiological psychology

23 B. Evolutionary Perspective
Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns Application of principles of evolution to explain behavior and psychological processes Keywords: ethology, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolass Tinbergen Graphic: picture of Lorenz pg. 16 Gray

24 Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species was published in His theory was that humans and animals had evolved and changed. His theory inspired scientists to study animals in order to understand human behavior.

25 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Charles Darwin Natural selection principle that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

26 C. Behavior-Genetics Perspective
Influenced by Nature vs. Nurture Debate How do our genes influence behavior and how does our environment influence our mental processes? Keywords: ethology, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolass Tinbergen Graphic: picture of Lorenz pg. 16 Gray

27 John B. Watson Watson studied the impact of learning on people. This led to the school of behaviorism. He believed that careful and structured parenting could eliminate psychological problems. Watson later wrote a book applying scientific methods to raising children.

28 The Behavioral Approach
People such as B. F. Skinner (pictured to the left) and John B. Watson are called behaviorists. This approach emphasizes that behavior is primarily the result of learning and not due to a person’s thoughts and unconscious processes.

29 D. Behavioral Perspective
View of behavior based on experience or learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning

30 E. Cognitive Perspective
How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior? Influences include Wortheimer, Kohler, Koffka – Gestalt Find the “whole pattern” of our perceptions Piaget – studied intellectual development Chomsky – studied language Cybernetics – science of information processing Keywords: cognitive psychology

31 F. The Sociocultural Approach
This approach looks at the impact that society, culture, ethnicity, race, and religion have on personality. Psychoanalytic Cognitive

32 Cross-Cultural Perspective
The study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups How are people’s thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture? What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate? Keywords: cultural psychology

33 Sigmund Freud Freud developed the first comprehensive theory of human development and behavior, especially how the personality develops. He believed that childhood memories and thoughts influenced the behavior of people when they became adults.

34 G. Psychodynamic Perspective
View of behavior based on experience treating patients Psychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud) both a method of treatment and a theory of the mind behavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences drives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behavior early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations Keywords: psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud

35 H. Humanistic Perspective
Developed by Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers behavior reflects innate ‘actualization’ focus on conscious forces and self perception more positive view of basic forces than Freud’s

36 The Humanistic Approach
Carl Rogers is the best known of the humanists. This approach emphasizes that people have free will, self-concepts and are basically good. Humanists believe that every person can fulfill his or her potential.

37 Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)
p. 9 Discovering psychology Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)

38 Evolutionary perspective
Psychology should study how behavior and mental processes allow organisms to adapt to their environments School/Approach Evolutionary perspective Founder Charles Darwin

39 School/Approach Humanistic Founder Maslow
Psychology should emphasize people’s unique potential for psychological growth School/Approach Humanistic Founder Maslow

40 School/Approach Behaviorism Founder Watson/Skinner
Psychology should only study observable behavior? School/Approach Behaviorism Founder Watson/Skinner

41 Which Perspective? Which Perspective? Emily is anxious because of
Emily is anxious because of a hormonal imbalance. Once the doctors prescribe the right medicine, she feels “normal” again.

42 Which Perspective? Samantha won’t acknowledge that she has an addiction. She’d rather lie to herself than admit the truth. Even though she wants to quit, she keeps going back to the same old habits. Each time she finds herself giving in to her urges and using, she finds a way to “forget” it ever happened so she doesn’t feel guilty.

43 Which Perspective? Betty is a naughty child because her parents never give her consequences and they always give in to her demands. She often throws tantrums and acts out at the grocery store because she knows they will buy her treats to keep her quiet. They are training her to have a “naughty” personality.

44 Which Perspective? Bob is depressed because he keeps thinking self-defeating thoughts. He never looks at the bright side of things. Once he gets into a negative mood, his thoughts spiral him down emotionally into a state of depression.

45 Which Perspective? Fernando would like to be on the varsity team before he graduates. He sets a goal to works every day throughout the off season to get better. However, his parents didn’t think it is worth his time. They make him get a summer job. When tryouts arrive, he is not selected for the team. He feels defeated and his self-esteem suffers, causing him to perform poorly in school.

46 Which Perspective? Roger spent his entire childhood in a rough neighborhood. He learned that fighting is part of life. When he moved to a new neighborhood his junior year, his parents were embarrassed by the number of times he got suspended for fighting. If only the administration knew where he’s really coming from….

47 Fig 1.1 p14 Disc psych


49 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Psychology’s Perspectives A lot depends on your viewpoint

50 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Psychology’s Subfields Basic Research Physiological psychologists explore the links between brain and mind Developmental psychologists study changing abilities from womb to tomb Cognitive psychologists study how we perceive, think, and solve problems

51 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Psychology’s Subfields Basic Research Personality psychologists investigate our persistent traits Social psychologists explore how we view and affect one another

52 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Psychology’s Subfields Applied Research Industrial/organizational psychologists study and advise on behavior in the workplace Clinical psychologists study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders

53 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
Psychiatry A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders Practiced by physicians who sometimes use medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy

54 Review MSOffice clip art


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