Presentation on theme: "Prologue: Psychology’s Roots"— Presentation transcript:
1 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots Definition of PsychologyThe science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings)Psyche – SoulLogos – The Study of
2 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots Prescientific PsychologyIs the mind connected to the body or distinct?Aristotle (heart)Plato (head)Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?Are we controlled by natural elements or supernatural elements?Religion vs. ScienceReligion/SupernaturalHippocrates/NaturalGalen/4 Greek HumorsGall/Phrenology
4 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology John Lockeempiricist; believed that knowledge is acquired solely through life experiences. Tabula Rasa: blank tabletClaimed each of us is born a blank slate on which are written the life experiences we acquire through our senses.(Plato believed just the opposite)
5 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Rene Descartesrationalist; insisted we should doubt everything that is not proved by our own reasoning. True knowledge comes through correct reasoning and it is inborn.
6 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots Psychological Science Is BornEmpiricismKnowledge comes from experience via the sensesScience flourishes through observation and experiment
7 Wilhelm WundtWundt is referred to as the “father of psychology” because in 1879 he started the first laboratory in psychology for studying humans.He broke into parts the elements of feelings and thought.Using a procedure called “introspection” he introduced scientific procedure to study feelings.
8 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structures or “atoms” of the human mind
9 Other Pioneers G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924) Wundt’s student, brought lab to USA at John’s Hopkins UniversityEdward Titchener (1867–1927)Wundt’s student, professor at Cornell UniversityWilliam James (1842–1910)started psychology at Harvard in 1870sopposed Wundt and Titchener’s approachfunctionalism – influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environmentSigmund Freud (1856–1939)Austrian physician that focused on illnesspsychoanalytic theory of mental disordersKeywords: William James, functionalism
10 P. 5. Discovering psy.E. B. Titchener (1867–1927)
11 William JamesJames is considered to be one of the founders of American psychology.In 1890, he published Principles of Psychology. The book was 1400 pages long, two volumes in length and it took him 12 years to write.Unlike Wundt, he did not want to break behavior into parts; instead, he never wanted to lose sight of the individual as a whole. His goal was to uncover the “functions” of the mind …FUNCTIONALISM
12 Prologue: Psychology’s Roots Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
13 Other Pioneers John B. Watson (1878–1958) B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) psychologists should study overt behaviorAdapted Pavlovian learning theory to humansB. F. Skinner (1904–1990)American psychologist at Harvardstudied learning and effect of reinforcementbehaviorism
17 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s Big IssuesStability vs. ChangeDo our individual traits persist as we age?Do we become older versions of ourselves?
18 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Rationality vs. IrrationalityRationality– reasonableness, good sense of equity and proportionIrrationality– not reasonable in thinking or behaving, distorted perception of reality
19 Philosophical Developments BIGAnother Question:Nature vs. Nurturethe relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviorsAre abilities determined by our genes or our experiences?What are the interactions between genetics and environment?What effect does it have on behavior?Keywords: materialism, empiricism, nativism
21 Approaches to Psychology BiologicalBehavioralPsychoanalyticHumanisticCognitiveSociocultural
22 A. Biological/Neuroscience Perspective Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behaviorFocus may be at various levelsindividual neuronsareas of the brainspecific functions like eating, emotion, or learningInterest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciencesKeywords: physiological psychology
23 B. Evolutionary Perspective Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patternsApplication of principles of evolution to explain behavior and psychological processesKeywords: ethology, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolass TinbergenGraphic: picture of Lorenz pg. 16 Gray
24 Charles DarwinOn the Origin of Species was published in His theory was that humans and animals had evolved and changed. His theory inspired scientists to study animals in order to understand human behavior.
25 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Charles DarwinNatural selectionprinciple that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
26 C. Behavior-Genetics Perspective Influenced by Nature vs. Nurture DebateHow do our genes influence behavior and how does our environment influence our mental processes?Keywords: ethology, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolass TinbergenGraphic: picture of Lorenz pg. 16 Gray
27 John B. WatsonWatson studied the impact of learning on people. This led to the school of behaviorism.He believed that careful and structured parenting couldeliminate psychological problems.Watson later wrote a book applying scientific methods to raising children.
28 The Behavioral Approach People such as B. F. Skinner (pictured to the left) and John B. Watson are called behaviorists.This approach emphasizes that behavior is primarily the result of learning and not due to a person’s thoughts and unconscious processes.
29 D. Behavioral Perspective View of behavior based on experience or learningClassical conditioningOperant conditioning
30 E. Cognitive Perspective How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior?Influences includeWortheimer, Kohler, Koffka – GestaltFind the “whole pattern” of our perceptionsPiaget – studied intellectual developmentChomsky – studied languageCybernetics – science of information processingKeywords: cognitive psychology
31 F. The Sociocultural Approach This approach looks at the impact that society, culture, ethnicity, race, and religion have on personality.PsychoanalyticCognitive
32 Cross-Cultural Perspective The study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groupsHow are people’s thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture?What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate?Keywords: cultural psychology
33 Sigmund FreudFreud developed the first comprehensive theory of human development and behavior, especially how the personality develops.He believed that childhood memories and thoughts influenced the behavior of people when they became adults.
34 G. Psychodynamic Perspective View of behavior based on experience treating patientsPsychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud)both a method of treatment and a theory of the mindbehavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influencesdrives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behaviorearly childhood experiences shape unconscious motivationsKeywords: psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud
35 H. Humanistic Perspective Developed by Abraham Maslow &Carl Rogersbehavior reflects innate ‘actualization’focus on conscious forces and self perceptionmore positive view of basic forces than Freud’s
36 The Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers is the best known of the humanists.This approach emphasizes that people have free will, self-concepts and are basically good. Humanists believe that every person can fulfill his or her potential.
37 Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) p. 9 Discovering psychologyCarl Rogers (1902–1987)Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)
38 Evolutionary perspective Psychology should study how behavior and mental processes allow organisms to adapt to their environmentsSchool/ApproachEvolutionary perspectiveFounderCharles Darwin
39 School/Approach Humanistic Founder Maslow Psychology should emphasize people’s unique potential for psychological growthSchool/ApproachHumanisticFounderMaslow
40 School/Approach Behaviorism Founder Watson/Skinner Psychology should only study observable behavior?School/ApproachBehaviorismFounderWatson/Skinner
41 Which Perspective? Which Perspective? Emily is anxious because of Emily is anxious because ofa hormonal imbalance. Once the doctors prescribe the right medicine, she feels “normal” again.
42 Which Perspective?Samantha won’t acknowledge that she has an addiction. She’d rather lie to herself than admit the truth. Even though she wants to quit, she keeps going back to the same old habits. Each time she finds herself giving in to her urges and using, she finds a way to “forget” it ever happened so she doesn’t feel guilty.
43 Which Perspective?Betty is a naughty child because her parents never give her consequences and they always give in to her demands. She often throws tantrums and acts out at the grocery store because she knows they will buy her treats to keep her quiet. They are training her to have a “naughty” personality.
44 Which Perspective?Bob is depressed because he keeps thinking self-defeating thoughts. He never looks at the bright side of things. Once he gets into a negative mood, his thoughts spiral him down emotionally into a state of depression.
45 Which Perspective?Fernando would like to be on the varsity team before he graduates. He sets a goal to works every day throughout the off season to get better. However, his parents didn’t think it is worth his time. They make him get a summer job. When tryouts arrive, he is not selected for the team. He feels defeated and his self-esteem suffers, causing him to perform poorly in school.
46 Which Perspective?Roger spent his entire childhood in a rough neighborhood. He learned that fighting is part of life. When he moved to a new neighborhood his junior year, his parents were embarrassed by the number of times he got suspended for fighting. If only the administration knew where he’s really coming from….
49 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s PerspectivesA lot depends on your viewpoint
50 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s SubfieldsBasic ResearchPhysiological psychologists explore the links between brain and mindDevelopmental psychologists study changing abilities from womb to tombCognitive psychologists study how we perceive, think, and solve problems
51 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s SubfieldsBasic ResearchPersonality psychologists investigate our persistent traitsSocial psychologists explore how we view and affect one another
52 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology Psychology’s SubfieldsApplied ResearchIndustrial/organizational psychologists study and advise on behavior in the workplaceClinical psychologists study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders
53 Prologue: Contemporary Psychology PsychiatryA branch of medicine dealing with psychological disordersPracticed by physicians who sometimes use medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy