2Characteristics of Life There are 7 Major Characteristics that all living creatures have in common.1. Organisms must obtain Energy.2. Organisms must use Energy.3. Organisms must be able to reproduce.4. Organisms must respond to changes in their environment. (Adapt)5. Organisms must get rid of waste.6. Organisms are made of cells.7. Organisms have a life span.
3Theories of LifeSpontaneous Generation – Life came from non-living sources.Biogenesis – Life comes from life.
4LifeA living part of the natural environment is called a biotic factor.A non-living, or once living, part of the environment is called an abiotic factor.
5Theories of Adaptation An adaptation is a change in a species over a long period of time.Two scientists have contributed ideas about adaptations.
6Theories of Adaptation Sir Charles Darwin developed a theory called natural selection. We know his theory as survival of the fittest.Online Adaptation Tool
7Theories of Adaptation Jean Baptiste Lemarck developed a theory called acquired characteristics. He believed that an organism could change during its own lifetime and that the change would pass to its offspring.
8Ways to Obtain EnergyAn organism that can make its own energy through the process of photosynthesis is known as a producer or an autotroph.
9Ways to obtain energyAn organism that must get its energy from organisms is called a consumer or a heterotroph.
10Ways to obtain energySomething that obtains its energy by feeding on dead or decaying matter is called a decomposer. It also returns nutrients to the soil.Decomposer Video
11Monera Now Split into 2 Kingdoms Archaebacteria and Eubacteria About 10,000 SpeciesProkaryotic and UnicellularBacteria are very adaptable to changeE. coli bacteria
12Monera - BacteriaIn one gram of agricultural soil, there can be as many as 2.5 billion bacteria.Bacteria are so small, that 1000 of them can fit in a space the size of one millimeter.Bacteria are the most abundant organism on the earth.
13Monera - BacteriaBacteria have been very successful and may be found in every ecosystem on the earth, including many that live in or on the bodies of Homo sapiens. That’s us!Mycobacterium tuberculosis
14Monera - BacteriaBacteria are the most abundant organism on the earth.Bacteria can reproduce very quickly, doubling their population size every 12.5 minutes.
15Monera - Bacteria Bacteria have very high growth rates There are about ten times more bacteria cells in your body than there are human cells.Some bacteria can perform photosynthesis while most of them are considered decomposers.Brain Pop Bacteria Video
162 Types of BacteriaMost scientists have now split Kingdom Monera into two Kingdoms. Those are Kingdom Archaebacteria and Kingdom Eubacteria.Kingdom Eubacteria is a general type of bacteria that you would find in your everyday environments from countertops, to soil, to even your skin and body.Examples of Eubacteria are: Esherischia coli, Bacillus pneumonia, Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium botulinum.
172 Types of BacteriaThe second type of bacteria is known as archaebacteria. Archaebacteria are found in extreme environments like geysers, volcanoes, deep underground, in the salt flats of Utah, or even the Arctic tundra.Examples of Archaebacteria would include: Halobacterium, Methanothermus, and Thermoproteus.Archaebacteria are often known as being Halophilic, Thermophilic, and Methanogens (anaerobic and they die in the presence of oxygen).Archaebacteria are thought to be some of the oldest species of organisms that have ever lived on earth. We have fossil remnants of them that go back 3.5 billion years.
18Protista About 250,000 Species of Protists Protists can be unicellular or multi-cellular and Eukaryotic1st Eukaryotic Protists appeared about 1.5 billion year agoSome protists have to get their energy from other organisms and some have to make their own foodMost protists are microscopic
19Protists Three Types of Protists Protozoa (Animal like protists) Algae (Plant like protists)Slime molds (Fungi like protists)Brain Pop Protist Video
20Protists - ProtozoaProtozoans are microscopic protists that have several characteristics that are like animals.This is a protozoan called a Daphnia, commonly referred to as a water flea.
21Protista - ProtozoanThis is a diagram of the body structures of a paramecium.As you can see, they are pretty complex for such little creatures.
22Protozoan-AmebaAmeba’s move and feed by forming pseudopods which are temporary bulges of the cell membrane that fill with cytoplasm.A pseudopod is also known as a “false foot.” It’s almost as if the ameba is just sliding around as it extends itself.This is also how the ameba eats because it can surround food particles with its body and consume them. This process is called “phagocytosis.”Ameba’s also have a contractile vacuole that helps them move as they can take in water and then expel itAmeba in Motion Video
23Protozoan-Paramecium Paramecium have structures called cilia which are hair-like projections that move like tiny oars. The cilia help the paramecium move.Paramecium eat when they use their cilia to sweep food particles towards the area of their body called an “oral groove.” This area acts as a mouth as organisms are able to consume small food particles generally dissolved in water.Paramecium are some of the most common protists found in water.
24Algae-EuglenoidsEuglenoids are green and use a whip like structure called a “flagellum” to whip themselves through aqueous solutions.Euglena are photosynthetic organisms that rely on the sun for energy. They have a structure in their body called an “eye spot” that helps them locate light.
25Protists - AlgaeAlgae are protists that have a few characteristics in common with plants.Algae make their own food using photosynthesis.This is a Green Algae
26Protista – Slime MoldsSlime and Water Molds have a few characteristics in common with fungiThis is a common slime mold that can grow on a forest floor
27Macroscopic ProtistaSome Protista are actually quite large and can be seen easily with the naked eye.Kelp forests grow in the ocean and are home to many animals.Protists under a microscope
28Kingdom Fungi 250,000 Species Eukaryotic and Multicellular Fungi must obtain their food from other organismsFungi are decomposers
29Kingdom FungiFungi are decomposers, this means that they must break down dead or decaying organisms to get the nutrients and energy that they need.This picture is a Starfish fungi
30Kingdom Fungi Fungi have root like structures called hyphae. Fungi can form symbiotic relationships with plants.Fungi that form this relationship with plants are called Mycorrhizae
31Kingdom FungiSome Fungi are very harmful to humans, to the right is a fungus called Ringworm or Tinea capitisThis is Athlete’s Foot, scientifically known as Tinea pedis
32Kingdom Fungi Some fungi can be very beneficial to humans Some fungi are even edible, some mushrooms are valued for their culinary use.
33Kingdom Plantae 250,000 Species Eukaryotic and Multicellular Make their own food during photosynthesis.Include: Mosses, ferns, grasses, gymnosperms and angiosperms.Plants have a cell wall and are made of cellulose
34Kingdom PlantaeDuring photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide, water and use energy from the sun to form sugar and oxygen.Plants are green because of the pigment chlorophyll that they use in photosynthesis.
40Kingdom Animalia 1,000,000 Species Animals are divided into two main groupsVertebrates: Animals having a backbone.Invertebrates: Animals without a backbone.*Humans belong to the Kingdom Animalia!
41Kingdom AnimaliaThe animal Kingdom contains the following different groups of animals:Amphibians -EchinodermsArthropods -MammalsBirds -MollusksFishes -ReptilesSharks -Insects
42Kingdom AnimaliaThe phylum arthropoda is the largest group of organisms in the animal kingdom.If we were able to identify and classify all of the unknown insects in the rain forests and elsewhere, scientists estimate that there would be 10 million different kinds of arthropods!
43Kingdom Animalia - Amphibia AmphibiansThe word amphibia in greek means double life.Amphibians spend at least part of their lives in water!
44Kingdom Animalia - Arthropods ArthropodaBilateral SymmetryThere are five main groups of arthropods: horseshoe crabs, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes and millipedes, and insects.
45Kingdom Animalia - Birds Have feathers and lay eggs.
46Kingdom Animalia - Fishes Spend their lives in water.Have gills
47Kingdom Animalia - Echinodermata Spiny skin, 5 part body, internal skeleton, tube feet.Starfish, urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, sea lillies.
48Kingdom Animalia - Mammals Have hair and mammary glands, give birth to live young.Nearly all are warm blooded.We belong to this group.
49Kingdom Animalia – Mollusca Animals with soft bodies.Have a toothed tongue.Many mollusks have shells.Mollusks include: snails, octopi, squid, clams, mussels and others
50Kingdom Animalia - Reptiles Reptiles are animals that have scales, breathe air and lay eggs.Reptiles include: Snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, turtles,
51Kingdom Animalia - Sharks Sharks have been on the earth for a very long time and they have changed relatively little over the years.Shark can have as many as 300 teeth!
52Kingdom Animalia - Insects Insects are part of the phylum arthropoda.This means that they are invertebrates. They have no backbone, but they do have an exoskeleton and 3 pairs of jointed appendagesIn Latin the word insect means segmented.
53Domains of Life (Old Classification System) There used to be an 8th level of classification in which there was a classification group called Domain that was up above Kingdoms.The 3 Domains of Life were Archae, Eukarya, and Prokarya.Eukarya and Prokarya were used to reference whether or not cells had a nucleus.
54VIDEO TIME!!!!!!!!!Kingdoms of Life Video Review