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The Kingdoms of Life Diversity of the Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "The Kingdoms of Life Diversity of the Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Kingdoms of Life Diversity of the Earth

2 Characteristics of Life
There are 7 Major Characteristics that all living creatures have in common. 1. Organisms must obtain Energy. 2. Organisms must use Energy. 3. Organisms must be able to reproduce. 4. Organisms must respond to changes in their environment. (Adapt) 5. Organisms must get rid of waste. 6. Organisms are made of cells. 7. Organisms have a life span.

3 Theories of Life Spontaneous Generation – Life came from non-living sources. Biogenesis – Life comes from life.

4 Life A living part of the natural environment is called a biotic factor. A non-living, or once living, part of the environment is called an abiotic factor.

5 Theories of Adaptation
An adaptation is a change in a species over a long period of time. Two scientists have contributed ideas about adaptations.

6 Theories of Adaptation
Sir Charles Darwin developed a theory called natural selection. We know his theory as survival of the fittest. Online Adaptation Tool

7 Theories of Adaptation
Jean Baptiste Lemarck developed a theory called acquired characteristics. He believed that an organism could change during its own lifetime and that the change would pass to its offspring.

8 Ways to Obtain Energy An organism that can make its own energy through the process of photosynthesis is known as a producer or an autotroph.

9 Ways to obtain energy An organism that must get its energy from organisms is called a consumer or a heterotroph.

10 Ways to obtain energy Something that obtains its energy by feeding on dead or decaying matter is called a decomposer. It also returns nutrients to the soil. Decomposer Video

11 Monera Now Split into 2 Kingdoms Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
About 10,000 Species Prokaryotic and Unicellular Bacteria are very adaptable to change E. coli bacteria

12 Monera - Bacteria In one gram of agricultural soil, there can be as many as 2.5 billion bacteria. Bacteria are so small, that 1000 of them can fit in a space the size of one millimeter. Bacteria are the most abundant organism on the earth.

13 Monera - Bacteria Bacteria have been very successful and may be found in every ecosystem on the earth, including many that live in or on the bodies of Homo sapiens. That’s us! Mycobacterium tuberculosis

14 Monera - Bacteria Bacteria are the most abundant organism on the earth. Bacteria can reproduce very quickly, doubling their population size every 12.5 minutes.

15 Monera - Bacteria Bacteria have very high growth rates
There are about ten times more bacteria cells in your body than there are human cells. Some bacteria can perform photosynthesis while most of them are considered decomposers. Brain Pop Bacteria Video

16 2 Types of Bacteria Most scientists have now split Kingdom Monera into two Kingdoms. Those are Kingdom Archaebacteria and Kingdom Eubacteria. Kingdom Eubacteria is a general type of bacteria that you would find in your everyday environments from countertops, to soil, to even your skin and body. Examples of Eubacteria are: Esherischia coli, Bacillus pneumonia, Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium botulinum.

17 2 Types of Bacteria The second type of bacteria is known as archaebacteria. Archaebacteria are found in extreme environments like geysers, volcanoes, deep underground, in the salt flats of Utah, or even the Arctic tundra. Examples of Archaebacteria would include: Halobacterium, Methanothermus, and Thermoproteus. Archaebacteria are often known as being Halophilic, Thermophilic, and Methanogens (anaerobic and they die in the presence of oxygen). Archaebacteria are thought to be some of the oldest species of organisms that have ever lived on earth. We have fossil remnants of them that go back 3.5 billion years.

18 Protista About 250,000 Species of Protists
Protists can be unicellular or multi-cellular and Eukaryotic 1st Eukaryotic Protists appeared about 1.5 billion year ago Some protists have to get their energy from other organisms and some have to make their own food Most protists are microscopic

19 Protists Three Types of Protists Protozoa (Animal like protists)
Algae (Plant like protists) Slime molds (Fungi like protists) Brain Pop Protist Video

20 Protists - Protozoa Protozoans are microscopic protists that have several characteristics that are like animals. This is a protozoan called a Daphnia, commonly referred to as a water flea.

21 Protista - Protozoan This is a diagram of the body structures of a paramecium. As you can see, they are pretty complex for such little creatures.

22 Protozoan-Ameba Ameba’s move and feed by forming pseudopods which are temporary bulges of the cell membrane that fill with cytoplasm. A pseudopod is also known as a “false foot.” It’s almost as if the ameba is just sliding around as it extends itself. This is also how the ameba eats because it can surround food particles with its body and consume them. This process is called “phagocytosis.” Ameba’s also have a contractile vacuole that helps them move as they can take in water and then expel it Ameba in Motion Video

23 Protozoan-Paramecium
Paramecium have structures called cilia which are hair-like projections that move like tiny oars. The cilia help the paramecium move. Paramecium eat when they use their cilia to sweep food particles towards the area of their body called an “oral groove.” This area acts as a mouth as organisms are able to consume small food particles generally dissolved in water. Paramecium are some of the most common protists found in water.

24 Algae-Euglenoids Euglenoids are green and use a whip like structure called a “flagellum” to whip themselves through aqueous solutions. Euglena are photosynthetic organisms that rely on the sun for energy. They have a structure in their body called an “eye spot” that helps them locate light.

25 Protists - Algae Algae are protists that have a few characteristics in common with plants. Algae make their own food using photosynthesis. This is a Green Algae

26 Protista – Slime Molds Slime and Water Molds have a few characteristics in common with fungi This is a common slime mold that can grow on a forest floor

27 Macroscopic Protista Some Protista are actually quite large and can be seen easily with the naked eye. Kelp forests grow in the ocean and are home to many animals. Protists under a microscope

28 Kingdom Fungi 250,000 Species Eukaryotic and Multicellular
Fungi must obtain their food from other organisms Fungi are decomposers

29 Kingdom Fungi Fungi are decomposers, this means that they must break down dead or decaying organisms to get the nutrients and energy that they need. This picture is a Starfish fungi

30 Kingdom Fungi Fungi have root like structures called hyphae.
Fungi can form symbiotic relationships with plants. Fungi that form this relationship with plants are called Mycorrhizae

31 Kingdom Fungi Some Fungi are very harmful to humans, to the right is a fungus called Ringworm or Tinea capitis This is Athlete’s Foot, scientifically known as Tinea pedis

32 Kingdom Fungi Some fungi can be very beneficial to humans
Some fungi are even edible, some mushrooms are valued for their culinary use.

33 Kingdom Plantae 250,000 Species Eukaryotic and Multicellular
Make their own food during photosynthesis. Include: Mosses, ferns, grasses, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Plants have a cell wall and are made of cellulose

34 Kingdom Plantae During photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide, water and use energy from the sun to form sugar and oxygen. Plants are green because of the pigment chlorophyll that they use in photosynthesis.

35 Kingdom Plantae Bryophytes or Mosses

36 Kingdom Plantae Ferns

37 Kingdom Plantae Grasses

38 Kingdom Plantae Gymnosperms or Cone bearing trees

39 Kingdom Plantae Angiosperms or flowering plants

40 Kingdom Animalia 1,000,000 Species
Animals are divided into two main groups Vertebrates: Animals having a backbone. Invertebrates: Animals without a backbone. *Humans belong to the Kingdom Animalia!

41 Kingdom Animalia The animal Kingdom contains the following different groups of animals: Amphibians -Echinoderms Arthropods -Mammals Birds -Mollusks Fishes -Reptiles Sharks -Insects

42 Kingdom Animalia The phylum arthropoda is the largest group of organisms in the animal kingdom. If we were able to identify and classify all of the unknown insects in the rain forests and elsewhere, scientists estimate that there would be 10 million different kinds of arthropods!

43 Kingdom Animalia - Amphibia
Amphibians The word amphibia in greek means double life. Amphibians spend at least part of their lives in water!

44 Kingdom Animalia - Arthropods
Arthropoda Bilateral Symmetry There are five main groups of arthropods: horseshoe crabs, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes and millipedes, and insects.

45 Kingdom Animalia - Birds
Have feathers and lay eggs.

46 Kingdom Animalia - Fishes
Spend their lives in water. Have gills

47 Kingdom Animalia - Echinodermata
Spiny skin, 5 part body, internal skeleton, tube feet. Starfish, urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, sea lillies.

48 Kingdom Animalia - Mammals
Have hair and mammary glands, give birth to live young. Nearly all are warm blooded. We belong to this group.

49 Kingdom Animalia – Mollusca
Animals with soft bodies. Have a toothed tongue. Many mollusks have shells. Mollusks include: snails, octopi, squid, clams, mussels and others

50 Kingdom Animalia - Reptiles
Reptiles are animals that have scales, breathe air and lay eggs. Reptiles include: Snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, turtles,

51 Kingdom Animalia - Sharks
Sharks have been on the earth for a very long time and they have changed relatively little over the years. Shark can have as many as 300 teeth!

52 Kingdom Animalia - Insects
Insects are part of the phylum arthropoda. This means that they are invertebrates. They have no backbone, but they do have an exoskeleton and 3 pairs of jointed appendages In Latin the word insect means segmented.

53 Domains of Life (Old Classification System)
There used to be an 8th level of classification in which there was a classification group called Domain that was up above Kingdoms. The 3 Domains of Life were Archae, Eukarya, and Prokarya. Eukarya and Prokarya were used to reference whether or not cells had a nucleus.

54 VIDEO TIME!!!!!!!!! Kingdoms of Life Video Review


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