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The HUMAN BODY Concepts of ANATOMYandPHYSIOLOGY. ANATOMY The scientific study of structures and the relationship of structures to each other.The scientific.

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Presentation on theme: "The HUMAN BODY Concepts of ANATOMYandPHYSIOLOGY. ANATOMY The scientific study of structures and the relationship of structures to each other.The scientific."— Presentation transcript:

1 The HUMAN BODY Concepts of ANATOMYandPHYSIOLOGY

2 ANATOMY The scientific study of structures and the relationship of structures to each other.The scientific study of structures and the relationship of structures to each other. FORMFORM Other terms include shape, structure, and appearance.Other terms include shape, structure, and appearance.

3 PHYSIOLOGY The scientific study of the functioning of specific body parts and systems.The scientific study of the functioning of specific body parts and systems. FUNCTIONFUNCTION

4 The study of function is? A.) anatomy B.) physiology C.) science D.) catabolism

5 Levels of Organization Chemical LevelChemical Level Cellular LevelCellular Level Tissue LevelTissue Level Organ LevelOrgan Level System LevelSystem Level Organism LevelOrganism Level

6 Levels of Organization

7 Chemical Level All chemical substances essential for maintaining life – atoms-compounds- molecules.All chemical substances essential for maintaining life – atoms-compounds- molecules. Major ElementsMajor Elements C - carbonC - carbon H - hydrogenH - hydrogen O - oxygenO - oxygen N - nitrogenN - nitrogen

8 Cellular Level The cell is the basic unit of structure and function.The cell is the basic unit of structure and function. Each cell has a unique structure and function.Each cell has a unique structure and function. Muscle cellsMuscle cells Nerve cellsNerve cells Blood cellsBlood cells Cartilage cellsCartilage cells

9 Tissue Level Collection of similar cells grouped together to perform a specific function.Collection of similar cells grouped together to perform a specific function. Usually derived from a common embryonic origin.Usually derived from a common embryonic origin. Four Major Tissue TypesFour Major Tissue Types Epithelial TissueEpithelial Tissue Connective TissueConnective Tissue Nervous TissueNervous Tissue Muscular TissueMuscular Tissue

10 Organ Level Structures composed of two or more different tissues.Structures composed of two or more different tissues. Have specific functions.Have specific functions. Usually have recognizable shapesUsually have recognizable shapes HeartHeart BrainBrain KidneyKidney LiverLiver

11 System Level An association of organs that have a common function.An association of organs that have a common function. Digestive SystemDigestive System Cardiovascular SystemCardiovascular System Nervous SystemNervous System Lymphatic SystemLymphatic System

12 Organism Level All body systems are functioning with one another as a living individual.

13 Put the levels of organization in order A.) chemical, cellular, organism, tissue, system, organ B.) organ, system, cellular, tissue, chemical, tissue C.) chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism D.) system, tissue, chemical, organ, organism, cellular

14 Metabolism The sum total of all chemical processes that occur in the body.

15 Anabolism Using energy to synthesize or manufacture new tissue or molecules.

16 Catabolism The breakdown of tissues or chemical structures to produce or generate energy.

17 You are running a marathon what is happening within your cells? A.) anabolism B.) catabolism

18 Position Descriptors Superior (Cranial)Superior (Cranial) Inferior (Caudal)Inferior (Caudal) Anterior (Ventral)Anterior (Ventral) Posterior (Dorsal)Posterior (Dorsal) MedialMedial LateralLateral ProximalProximal DistalDistal

19 Position Descriptors

20 Anatomical Terms

21 Movement Descriptors flexionflexion extensionextension hyperextensionhyperextension abductionabduction adductionadduction plantar flexionplantar flexion dorsiflexiondorsiflexion circumductioncircumduction supination (LR) pronation (MR) inversion eversion elevation depression protraction retraction

22 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Special Movements Special Movements InversionInversion EversionEversion DorsiflexionDorsiflexion Plantar flexionPlantar flexion SupinationSupination PronationPronation OppositionOpposition

23 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Abduction Abduction Movement of a bone away from the midlineMovement of a bone away from the midline Moving the humerus laterally at the shoulder jointMoving the humerus laterally at the shoulder joint Adduction Adduction Movement of a bone toward the midlineMovement of a bone toward the midline Movement that returns body parts to normal position from abductionMovement that returns body parts to normal position from abduction

24 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Circumduction Circumduction Movement of a body part in a circleMovement of a body part in a circle Moving the humerus in a circle at the shoulder jointMoving the humerus in a circle at the shoulder joint

25 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Rotation Rotation A bone revolves around its own longitudinal axisA bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis Turning the head from side to side as when you shake your head noTurning the head from side to side as when you shake your head no

26 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Special Movements Special Movements ElevationElevation DepressionDepression ProtractionProtraction RetractionRetraction

27 Planes Fixed lines of reference along which the body or organ is often divided to facilitate viewing.

28 Body Planes

29 Sagittal Plane A vertical plane which divides the body or structure into right and left sections.

30 Sagittal Section of Thorax

31 MRI of Brain

32 Mid-Sagittal Plane A vertical plane which divides a body or structure into equal right and left halves.

33 Frontal (Coronal) Plane A vertical plane which divides a body or structure into anterior and posterior sections

34 X-Ray: Frontal View

35 Transverse (Horizontal) Plane A horizontal plane which divides a body or structure into superior and inferior sections.

36 Transverse Plane (Cross Section)

37 Chest CT Scan

38 Brain MRI

39 Planes - Overview

40 You are doing heart surgery and have to cut through the rib cage, what kind of a cut will you make? A.) midsagittal B.) frontal C.) transverse

41 BODY CAVITIES Spaces within the body that contain the internal organs.

42 Dorsal Body Cavity Cranial CavityCranial Cavity Contains the brainContains the brain Spinal (Vertebral) CavitySpinal (Vertebral) Cavity Bony cavity formed by the vertebrae of the spine that contains and protects the spinal cord.Bony cavity formed by the vertebrae of the spine that contains and protects the spinal cord.

43 Ventral Body Cavity Thoracic CavityThoracic Cavity Pleural cavities (2)Pleural cavities (2) MediastinumMediastinum Pericardial cavityPericardial cavity Abdominopelvic CavityAbdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal cavityAbdominal cavity Pelvic cavityPelvic cavity

44 Thoracic cavity

45 You have just received a gun shot to the chest, which cavity did it go through? A.) Abdominopelvic B.) cranial C.) thoracic

46 Body Cavities

47 Abdominopelvic Quadrants The abdominopelvic cavity can be functionally divided into quadrants.The abdominopelvic cavity can be functionally divided into quadrants. Used by clinical personnel to describe the location of abdominopelvic pain, tumors, and other abnormalities.Used by clinical personnel to describe the location of abdominopelvic pain, tumors, and other abnormalities.

48 Abdominopelvic Quadrants Used mostly in the medical and clinical disciplines.Used mostly in the medical and clinical disciplines. Functionally divides the abdominopelvic cavity into four quadrantsFunctionally divides the abdominopelvic cavity into four quadrants RUQ - Right Upper QuadrantRUQ - Right Upper Quadrant LUQ - Left Upper QuadrantLUQ - Left Upper Quadrant RLQ - Right Lower QuadrantRLQ - Right Lower Quadrant LLQ - Left Lower QuadrantLLQ - Left Lower Quadrant

49 Quadrants and Organs RUQ – liver, gallbladder, right kidneyRUQ – liver, gallbladder, right kidney LUQ – stomach, spleen, pancreas, left kidneyLUQ – stomach, spleen, pancreas, left kidney RLQ – appendix, right ovaryRLQ – appendix, right ovary LLQ – left ovaryLLQ – left ovary

50 Abdominopelvic Quadrants

51 Nine body regions Right Hypo chondriac Epigastric Left Hypo chondriac Right Lumbar UmbilicalLeft Lumbar Right Ingunial Hypo Gastric Left Ingunial

52 Homeostasis The ability of the body to maintain a constant internal environment within prescribed physiological limits.

53 Parameters Maintained in Homeostasis gas concentrationsgas concentrations temperaturetemperature pressurepressure pH (acidity)pH (acidity) nutrientsnutrients waterwater

54 STRESS Any factor which disrupts homeostasis.Any factor which disrupts homeostasis. Any stimulus which creates an imbalance in the bodys internal environmentAny stimulus which creates an imbalance in the bodys internal environment Anything that causes stress - StressorAnything that causes stress - Stressor PhysicalPhysical EmotionalEmotional MetabolicMetabolic EnvironmentalEnvironmental

55 External Stressors HeatHeat ColdCold NoiseNoise LightLight ExerciseExercise

56 Internal Stressors PainPain TumorsTumors High blood pressureHigh blood pressure Chemical imbalancesChemical imbalances Unpleasant thoughtsUnpleasant thoughts

57 Feedback Mechanisms Any circular situation in which information about something is monitored and sent to a control center

58 Components of a Feedback Mechanism Control CenterControl Center An area that receives information about a monitored condition and determines an appropriate response.An area that receives information about a monitored condition and determines an appropriate response. ReceptorReceptor An area or structure that monitors a controlled condition.An area or structure that monitors a controlled condition. EffectorEffector Structure that produces a response or changes a controlled condition.Structure that produces a response or changes a controlled condition.

59 Feedback Mechanisms

60 Types of Feedback Mechanisms Negative Feedback Mechanisms (Inhibitory)Negative Feedback Mechanisms (Inhibitory) The response counteracts the input.The response counteracts the input. The most common feedback mechanism.The most common feedback mechanism. Examples:Examples: blood pressureblood pressure blood sugar regulationblood sugar regulation cardiac outputcardiac output temperature regulationtemperature regulation Positive Feedback Mechanisms (Stimulatory)Positive Feedback Mechanisms (Stimulatory) The response is intensified by the input.The response is intensified by the input. Example: Breastfeeding by an infant, childbirth, and blood clotting.Example: Breastfeeding by an infant, childbirth, and blood clotting.

61 Negative Feedback System

62 Positive Feedback System

63 Which feedback mechanism reverses the reaction to return to homeostasis? A.) Negative B.) Positive C.) Neutral

64 MRI Machines

65


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