7Chemical LevelAll chemical substances essential for maintaining life – atoms-compounds-molecules.Major ElementsC - carbonH - hydrogenO - oxygenN - nitrogen
8Cellular Level The cell is the basic unit of structure and function. Each cell has a unique structure and function.Muscle cellsNerve cellsBlood cellsCartilage cells
9Tissue LevelCollection of similar cells grouped together to perform a specific function.Usually derived from a common embryonic origin.Four Major Tissue TypesEpithelial TissueConnective TissueNervous TissueMuscular Tissue
10Organ Level Structures composed of two or more different tissues. Have specific functions.Usually have recognizable shapesHeartBrainKidneyLiver
11System Level An association of organs that have a common function. Digestive SystemCardiovascular SystemNervous SystemLymphatic System
12Organism LevelAll body systems are functioning with one another as a living individual.
13Put the levels of organization in order iRespond QuestionFMultiple ChoiceA.) chemical, cellular, organism, tissue, system, organB.) organ, system, cellular, tissue, chemical, tissueC.) chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismD.) system, tissue, chemical, organ, organism, cellularE.)
14The sum total of all chemical processes that occur in the body. MetabolismThe sum total of all chemical processes that occur in the body.
15Using energy to synthesize or manufacture new tissue or molecules. AnabolismUsing energy to synthesize or manufacture new tissue or molecules.
16CatabolismThe breakdown of tissues or chemical structures to produce or generate energy.
17You are running a marathon what is happening within your cells? iRespond QuestionFMultiple ChoiceA.) anabolismB.) catabolismC.)D.)E.)
18Position Descriptors Superior (Cranial) Inferior (Caudal) Anterior (Ventral)Posterior (Dorsal)MedialLateralProximalDistal
22Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Special MovementsInversionEversionDorsiflexionPlantar flexionSupinationPronationOppositionCopyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
23Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) AbductionMovement of a bone away from the midlineMoving the humerus laterally at the shoulder jointAdductionMovement of a bone toward the midlineMovement that returns body parts to normal position from abductionCopyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
24Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) CircumductionMovement of a body part in a circleMoving the humerus in a circle at the shoulder jointCopyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
25Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) RotationA bone revolves around its own longitudinal axisTurning the head from side to side as when you shake your head “no”Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
26Joints (Types of Movements at Synovial Joints) Special MovementsElevationDepressionProtractionRetractionCopyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
27PlanesFixed lines of reference along which the body or organ is often divided to facilitate viewing.
47Abdominopelvic Quadrants The abdominopelvic cavity can be functionally divided into quadrants.Used by clinical personnel to describe the location of abdominopelvic pain, tumors, and other abnormalities.
48Abdominopelvic Quadrants Used mostly in the medical and clinical disciplines.Functionally divides the abdominopelvic cavity into four quadrantsRUQ - Right Upper QuadrantLUQ - Left Upper QuadrantRLQ - Right Lower QuadrantLLQ - Left Lower Quadrant
49Quadrants and Organs RUQ – liver, gallbladder, right kidney LUQ – stomach, spleen, pancreas, left kidneyRLQ – appendix, right ovaryLLQ – left ovary
56Internal Stressors Pain Tumors High blood pressure Chemical imbalances Unpleasant thoughts
57Feedback MechanismsAny circular situation in which information about something is monitored and sent to a control center
58Components of a Feedback Mechanism Control CenterAn area that receives information about a monitored condition and determines an appropriate response.ReceptorAn area or structure that monitors a controlled condition.EffectorStructure that produces a response or changes a controlled condition.
60Types of Feedback Mechanisms Negative Feedback Mechanisms (Inhibitory)The response counteracts the input.The most common feedback mechanism.Examples:blood pressureblood sugar regulationcardiac outputtemperature regulationPositive Feedback Mechanisms (Stimulatory)The response is intensified by the input.Example: Breastfeeding by an infant, childbirth, and blood clotting.