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Metric System Basics

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Measurement A measurement is a repeatable observation of a quantity that includes a number and a unit. Examples: 43 meters 16 seconds 5 liters 20 minutes 20.5 centimeters

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**SI SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT**

Scientists worldwide have agreed to use the SI system of measurement in their work. SI stands for “Syste’me International” Each type of measurement in SI has a base unit, such as the meter for distance or the second for time. A common name for this system is the metric system.

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**Steps of the metric system**

Divide your planner page box into 24 sections by dividing it in half vertically, then each of those sections in half and then in half again. Divide it horizontally in thirds like the following:

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**Fill out your table with information**

List the saying that is going to help us remember the prefixes used in the metric system. Then fill in the name of the prefixes along with their abbreviations. kilo hecto deka deci centi milli king henry danced merrily down center main k h da d c m

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**SI BASE UNITS The base units we are going to work with this year are:**

Meter – that is used for measuring distance Gram – that is used for measuring mass Liter – that is used for measuring liquid volume.

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**Fill out your table with base unit information and sayings**

Change the saying for each of the saying for the other two base units. List the base units that are used for each of the measurements. kilo hecto deka gracefuly deci centi milli mass king henry danced merrily down center main length k h da Lazily d c m volume

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**Prefix names + base words**

Fill in the names of each unit by adding the prefixes to the base words. List the abbreviations for each Kilogram kg hectogram hg dekagram dag gram g decigram dg centigram cg milligram mg mass kilometer km hectometer hm dekameter dam meter m decimeter dm centimeter cm millimeter mm length kiloliter kL hectoliter hL dekaliter daL Liter L deciliter dL centiliter cL milliliter mL volume

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**Before we began, lets do some mental math. YAY!**

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**Don’t reach for that calculator!!!**

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Let’s begin!

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**Multiply each of the following numbers by 10**

27 x 10 = 157 x 10 = 56.4 x 10 = x 10 = x 10 = 270 1570 564 4588.7 235.16

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**Multiply each of the following numbers by 100**

22 x 100 = 156 x 100 = 45.1 x 100 = 74.32 x 100 = 3.567 x 100 = 2200 15600 4510 7432 356.7

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**Divide each of the following numbers by 10**

33.0 or 33 760.0 or 760 26.81 0.178 1.8395 330 10 = 7600 10 = 10 = 1.78 10 = 10 =

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**Divide each of the following numbers by 100**

2.10 or 2.1 78.00 or 78 4.216 0.821 210 100 = 7800 100 = 100 = 82.1 100 = 100 =

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Guess What! If you were able to do all that without a calculator, you can do metrics.

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Metric System The metric system is based on a base unit that corresponds to a certain kind of measurement Length = meter (m) Volume = liter (L or l) Weight (Mass) = gram (g) Prefixes added to the base units make up the metric system Example: Centi + meter = Centimeter = cm Kilo + liter = Kiloliter = kL or kl

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Common Prefixes The three prefixes that we will use the most in class are: kilo centi milli kilo hecto deka Base Units meter gram liter deci centi milli

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Example for Length So if you needed to measure length you would choose meter as your base unit Length of a tree branch 1.5 meters Length of a room 5 meters Length of a ball of twine stretched out 25 meters

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Powers of 10 These prefixes are based on powers of 10. What does this mean? From each prefix every “step” is either: 10 times larger or 10 times smaller For example Centimeters are 10 times larger than millimeters 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters kilo hecto deka Base Units meter gram liter deci centi milli

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For Example A centimeters is 10 times longer than a millimeter so it takes more millimeters for the same length 1 centimeter = 10 millimeters Example not to scale 1 mm 1 cm 40 41

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**The “Steps” For each “step” to right, you are multiplying by 10**

For example, let’s go from a base unit to centi- 1 liter = 10 deciliters = 100 centiliters 2 grams = 20 decigrams = 200 centigrams ( 1 x 10 = 10) = (10 x 10 = 100) (2 x 10 = 20) = (20 x 10 = 200) kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli

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More “Steps” An easy way to move within the metric system is by moving the decimal point one place for each “step” desired Example: change meters to centimeters 1 meter = 10 decimeters = 100 centimeters or 1.00 meter = 10.0 decimeters = 100. centimeters kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli

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Applying “Steps” Now let’s try our previous example from meters to kilometers: 16093 meters = decameters = hectometers = kilometers So for every “step” from the base unit to kilo, we moved the decimal 1 place to the left (the same direction as in the diagram below) kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli

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Moving to the “Steps” If you move to the left in the diagram, move the decimal to the left If you move to the right in the diagram, move the decimal to the right kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli

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Moving the “Steps” Now let’s start from centiliters and convert to kiloliters centiliters = kiloliters centiliters = 4 kiloliters kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli

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Moving the “Steps” Now let’s start from meters and convert to kilometers 4000 meters = 4 kilometers kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli Now let’s start from centigrams and convert to grams 4000 centigrams = 40 grams kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli

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**Keep on Moving the “Steps”**

Now let’s start from liters and convert to centiliters 5 liters = 500 centiliters kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli Now let’s start from kilograms and convert to grams kilograms = 300 grams kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli

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Keep on Moving Now let’s start from kilometers and convert to millimeters 4 kilometers = millimeters or 4 kilometers = 40 hectometers = 400 decameters = 4000 meters = 40000 decimeters = centimeters = millimeters kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli

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**Finally Summary Base units in the metric system are meter, liter, gram**

Metric system is based on powers of 10 For conversions within the metric system, each “step” is 1 decimal place to the right or left Using the diagram below, converting to the right, moves the decimal to the right and vice versa kilo hecto deka meter liter gram deci centi milli

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