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Carbohydrates. Can you live without sugar? Soda/Punch Cookies Candy Chocolate Desserts Sugary Cereals Ice cream.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbohydrates. Can you live without sugar? Soda/Punch Cookies Candy Chocolate Desserts Sugary Cereals Ice cream."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbohydrates

2 Can you live without sugar? Soda/Punch Cookies Candy Chocolate Desserts Sugary Cereals Ice cream

3 CARBOHYDRATES 1. 60% of our food should come from carbohydrates.

4 2. Carbohydrates are grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes and sugar.

5 Carbohydrates glucose provides energy for the brain and ½ of energy for muscles and tissues glucose provides energy for the brain and ½ of energy for muscles and tissues glycogen is stored glucose glycogen is stored glucose glucose is immediate energy glucose is immediate energy glycogen is reserve energy glycogen is reserve energy

6 CARBOHYDRATES 3. Carbohydrates give the body energy. They are the best source of fuel for the body. Carbohydrates also help to digest protein and fat.

7 2. Carbohydrates also play a vital part of the metabolism and oxidation of protein 2. Carbohydrates also play a vital part of the metabolism and oxidation of protein Carbs help feed the brain and nervous system and helps keep the body lean. Carbs help feed the brain and nervous system and helps keep the body lean.

8 CARBOHYDRATES 4. If we eat more carbohydrates than are needed for energy, the extra is stored in the liver or in the tissues as fat.

9 Carbohydrates 5. all plant food 5. all plant food Milk (LACTOSE) Milk (LACTOSE) carbohydrates are not equal carbohydrates are not equal –simple carbohydrates –complex carbohydrates

10 Simple Carbohydrates 6. Simple carbohydrates are quick energy sources. They come from sugar. They do not usually supply any other nutrients or fiber.

11 Simple Carbohydrates sugars sugars –monosaccharides – single sugars –disaccharides – 2 monosaccharides

12 Simple Carbs monosaccharides monosaccharides –all are 6 carbon hexes 6 carbons 6 carbons 12 hydrogens 12 hydrogens 6 oxygens 6 oxygens arrangement differs arrangement differs –accounts for varying sweetness –glucose, fructose, galactose

13 Glucose mild sweet flavor mild sweet flavor 10. known as blood sugar 10. known as blood sugar essential energy source essential energy source found in every disaccharide and polysaccharide found in every disaccharide and polysaccharide

14 Fructose sweetest sugar sweetest sugar found in fruits and honey found in fruits and honey added to soft drinks, cereals, deserts added to soft drinks, cereals, deserts

15 Galactose hardly tastes sweet hardly tastes sweet rarely found naturally as a single sugar rarely found naturally as a single sugar

16 Disaccharides pairs of the monosaccharides pairs of the monosaccharides –glucose is always present –2 nd of the pair could be fructose, galactose or another glucose –taken apart by hydrolysis –put together by condensation –hydrolysis and condensation occur with all energy nutrients –maltose, sucrose, lactose

17 Maltose 2 glucose units 2 glucose units produced when starch breaks down produced when starch breaks down not abundant not abundant

18 Sucrose fructose and glucose fructose and glucose tastes sweet tastes sweet –fruit, vegetables, grains table sugar is refined sugarcane and sugar beets table sugar is refined sugarcane and sugar beets brown, white, powdered brown, white, powdered

19 Lactose glucose and galactose glucose and galactose main carbohydrate in milk main carbohydrate in milk –known as milk sugar

20 Simple Sugars 7. Glucose or blood sugar is the basic source of energy for all living things. 8. Sucrose or table sugar is made from sugar beets or sugar cane. 9. Fructose is sugar found in fruit, honey and vegetables. 11. Maltose is grain starch broken down into sugar. 12. Lactose is milk sugar.

21 Complex Carbohydrates starches and fibers starches and fibers polysaccharides polysaccharides –chains of monosaccharides

22 Complex Carbohydrates 13. Complex carbohydrates supply longer lasting energy, as well as other nutrients and fiber that the body needs. They are a better choice.

23 Condensation making a disaccharide making a disaccharide –chemical reaction linking 2 monosaccharides

24 Hydrolysis breaking a disaccharide breaking a disaccharide –water molecule splits –occurs during digestion

25 Complex Carbohydrates polysaccharides polysaccharides –1.glycogen and 2.starch built entirely of glucose built entirely of glucose –3.fiber variety of monosaccharides and other carbohydrate derivatives variety of monosaccharides and other carbohydrate derivatives

26 Glycogen limited in meat and not found in plants limited in meat and not found in plants –not an important dietary source of carbohydrate BUT BUT –all glucose is stored as glycogen –long chains allow for hydrolysis and release hydrolysis and release of energy of energy

27 Starches stored in plant cells stored in plant cells body hydrolyzes plant starch to glucose body hydrolyzes plant starch to glucose

28 STARCHES 14. Starch in the body breaks down simple sugars. The body has to break down all sugar and starch into glucose to use it. 14. Starch in the body breaks down simple sugars. The body has to break down all sugar and starch into glucose to use it.

29 15. All starchy foods are plant foods, seeds are the richest source; 70% of their weight is starch 15. All starchy foods are plant foods, seeds are the richest source; 70% of their weight is starch

30 Fiber structural parts of plants structural parts of plants –found in all plant derived food bonds of fibers cannot be broken down during the digestive process bonds of fibers cannot be broken down during the digestive process –minimal or no energy available

31 Fiber types cellulose cellulose pectins pectins lignins lignins resistant starches resistant starches –classified as fibers –escape digestion and absorption

32 Fiber Characteristics soluble fibers, viscous, fermentable soluble fibers, viscous, fermentable –easily digested by bacteria in colon –associated with protection against heart disease and diabetes lower cholesterol and glucose levels lower cholesterol and glucose levels –found in legumes and fruits

33 Fiber 1.The average American does not get enough FIBER in their diets. 2.The National Cancer Institute recommends that the average person gets GRAMS of fiber every day. 3.Two other common names for fiber are: ROUGHAGE or CELLULOSE.

34 4.Fiber is important because it attracts WATER to the INTESTINES and helps move food through our systems faster. You have to have water along with fiber or it is not as effective. 5.Benefits of fiber include a lowered risk of DIVERTICULITUS, HEMORRHOIDS and COLON or RECAL CANCER.

35 6. List the two types of fiber and the main functions they perform:

36 7.Fiber only comes from PLANT food sources. You CANNOT get fiber from animal food sources. 8.Foods that are high in fiber include: Fruits and Veggies (Especially the Skins!)Fruits and Veggies (Especially the Skins!) Whole GrainsWhole Grains Legumes/BeansLegumes/Beans BranBran 9.Ways to increase fiber in the diet include: Add Whole Grains (At least 3 oz. per day)Add Whole Grains (At least 3 oz. per day) Use Whole Wheat FlourUse Whole Wheat Flour Eat the SkinsEat the Skins

37 10. Label the Wheat Kernel below: A.__ENDOSPERM___ Provides: Starch Protein B.__GERM___ Provides: Unsaturated Fatty Acids B Vitamins Vitamin E Iron Zinc Other Trace Minerals C.__Bran___ Provides: Fiber Vitamins Minerals

38 11.When a product claims that it is Whole Wheat or Whole Grain, it must use the ENTIRE wheat kernel, or ALL THREE parts. 12.Other products, like white bread and rice, usually only use the ENDOSPERM, which is the LEAST beneficial part of the wheat kernel. 13.ENRICHED: some of the nutrients that were lost in processing are added back into the product. 14.FORTIFIED: 10% more of the Daily Value for the nutrient is being added.

39 Fiber insoluble and not easily fermented insoluble and not easily fermented –promote bowel movements –alleviate constipation –found in grains and vegetables

40 DRI and Fiber distinguish fibers by source distinguish fibers by source –dietary fibers: naturally in intact plants –functional fibers: extracted from plants or manufactured –total fiber: sum of the 2

41 Carbohydrate Digestion break down into glucose break down into glucose –body is able to absorb and use large starch molecules large starch molecules – extensive breakdown disaccharides disaccharides –broken once monosaccharides monosaccharides –dont need to be broken down

42 Carbohydrate Digestion begins in mouth begins in mouth –chewing releases saliva –enzyme amylase hydrolyzes starch to polysaccharides and maltose stomach stomach –no enzymes available to break down starch –acid does some breakdown –fibers in starch provide feeling of fullness

43 small intestine small intestine –majority of carbohydrate digestion takes place here –pancreatic amylase reduces carbs to glucose chains or disaccharides –specific enzymes finish the job maltase maltase –maltose into 2 glucose sucrase sucrase –sucrose into glucose and fructose lactase lactase –lactose into glucose and galactose

44 large intestine large intestine –1-4 hours for sugars and starches to be digested –only fibers remain attract water, which softens stool attract water, which softens stool –bacteria ferment some fibers water, gas, short-chain fatty acids (used for energy) water, gas, short-chain fatty acids (used for energy)

45 Carbohydrate Absorption glucose can be absorbed in the mouth glucose can be absorbed in the mouth majority absorbed in small intestine majority absorbed in small intestine –active transport glucose and galactic glucose and galactic –facilitated diffusion fructose fructose smaller rise in blood glucose smaller rise in blood glucose

46 Lactose Intolerance more lactose is consumed than can be digested more lactose is consumed than can be digested –lactose molecules attract water cause floating, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea cause floating, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea –intestinal bacteria feed on undigested lactose produce acid and gas produce acid and gas

47 Lactose Intolerance age, damage, medication, diarrhea, malnutrition age, damage, medication, diarrhea, malnutrition management requires dietary change management requires dietary change –6 grams (1/2 cup) usually tolerable –take in gradually –hard cheeses & cottage cheese –enzyme drops or tablets lactose free diet is extremely difficult to accomplish lactose free diet is extremely difficult to accomplish

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49 Carbohydrate Metabolism 1/3 of bodys glycogen is stored in liver 1/3 of bodys glycogen is stored in liver –released as glucose to bloodstream 1.eat – intake glucose 2.liver condenses extra glucose to glycogen 3.blood glucose falls 4.liver hydrolyzes glycogen to glucose Glycogen is bulky, so we store only so much: short term energy supply Fat is the long term energy supply.

50 Glucose for Energy enzymes break apart glucose – yielding energy enzymes break apart glucose – yielding energy inadequate supply of carbohydrates inadequate supply of carbohydrates –ketone bodies (fat fragments) are an alternate energy source during starvation –excess ketones can lead to ketosis: imbalance of acids in body minimum of 50 – 100 grams of carbs/day are needed to avoid ketosis minimum of 50 – 100 grams of carbs/day are needed to avoid ketosis

51 Glucose Homeostasis maintaining an even balance of glucose is controlled by insulin and glucagon maintaining an even balance of glucose is controlled by insulin and glucagon –insulin moves glucose into the blood moves glucose into the blood –glucagon brings glucose out of storage brings glucose out of storage

52 maintaining balance maintaining balance –balanced meals at regular intervals fiber and some fat slow the digestive process down fiber and some fat slow the digestive process down glucose gets into the blood slow and steady glucose gets into the blood slow and steady

53 Maintaining Blood Glucose Homeostasis Intestine When a person eats, blood glucose rises. 1 2 Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose into cells and storage as glycogen in the liver and muscles. Insulin also stimulates the conversion of excess glucose into fat for storage Blood glucose begins to rise. a The stress hormone epinephrine and other hormones also bring glucose out of storage. Glucose Insulin Glucagon Glycogen Glucagon stimulates liver cells to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood. a Liver Low blood glucose stimulates the pancreas to release glucagon into the bloodstream. As the body's cells use glucose, blood levels decline. Glucagon Pancreas Fat cell Liver Muscle High blood glucose stimulates the pancreas to release insulin. Pancreas Insulin

54 Imbalance diabetes diabetes –after food intake, blood glucose rises and is not regulated because insulin is inadequate hypoglycemia hypoglycemia –blood glucose drops dramatically too much insulin, activity, inadequate food intake, illness too much insulin, activity, inadequate food intake, illness diet adjustment includes fiber-rich carbs and protein diet adjustment includes fiber-rich carbs and protein

55 Glycemic Index way of classifying food according to their ability to raise blood glucose way of classifying food according to their ability to raise blood glucose much controversy much controversy

56 Sugar ½ comes from natural sources, ½ from refined and added ½ comes from natural sources, ½ from refined and added –sucrose, corn syrup, honey excess can lead to nutrient deficiencies and tooth decay excess can lead to nutrient deficiencies and tooth decay –empty calories –sugar and starch break down in the mouth

57 Sugar recommended intake recommended intake –added sugar = no more than 10% of energy intake

58 Starch and Fiber diet that includes starch, fiber and natural sugars diet that includes starch, fiber and natural sugars –whole grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits may protect against heart disease and stroke may protect against heart disease and stroke reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes enhances the health of the large intestine enhances the health of the large intestine can promote weight loss can promote weight loss

59 Starch and Fiber starch intake starch intake –45-65% –225 – 325 grams (DV is 300 grams) – kcal/2000 kcal –RDA is 130 grams fiber intake fiber intake –Daily Value is 25 grams/2000 kcal

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62 Groceries grains: 1 serving = 15 grams grains: 1 serving = 15 grams vegetables vegetables –½ cup starchy = 15 grams –½ cup nonstarchy = 5 grams fruit: 1 serving = 15 grams fruit: 1 serving = 15 grams milk: 1 cup = 12 grams milk: 1 cup = 12 grams meat: none or little meat: none or little legumes: ½ cup = 15 grams legumes: ½ cup = 15 grams

63 Artificial Sweeteners help keep sugar and energy intake down help keep sugar and energy intake down anything we eat has FDA approval anything we eat has FDA approval –saccharin –aspartame –acesulfame potassium –sucralose –neotame

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65 Sugar Replacers sugar alcohols sugar alcohols –provide bulk and sweetness cookies, gum, candy, jelly cookies, gum, candy, jelly –do contain minimal kcal –low glycemic response absorbed slowly absorbed slowly –do not cause dental caries


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