12Simple Carbs monosaccharides all are 6 carbon hexes 6 carbons 12 hydrogens6 oxygensarrangement differsaccounts for varying sweetnessglucose, fructose, galactose
13Glucose mild sweet flavor 10. known as blood sugar essential energy sourcefound in every disaccharide and polysaccharide
14Fructose sweetest sugar found in fruits and honey added to soft drinks, cereals, deserts
15Galactosehardly tastes sweetrarely found naturally as a single sugar
16Disaccharides pairs of the monosaccharides glucose is always present 2nd of the pair could be fructose, galactose or another glucosetaken apart by hydrolysisput together by condensationhydrolysis and condensation occur with all energy nutrientsmaltose, sucrose, lactose
17Maltose2 glucose unitsproduced when starch breaks downnot abundant
18Sucrose fructose and glucose tastes sweet fruit, vegetables, grains table sugar is refined sugarcane and sugar beetsbrown, white, powdered
19Lactose glucose and galactose main carbohydrate in milk known as milk sugar
20Simple Sugars7. Glucose or blood sugar is the basic source of energy for all living things.8. Sucrose or table sugar is made from sugar beets or sugar cane.9. Fructose is sugar found in fruit, honey and vegetables.11. Maltose is grain starch broken down into sugar.12. Lactose is milk sugar.
21Complex Carbohydrates starches and fiberspolysaccharideschains of monosaccharides
22Complex Carbohydrates 13. Complex carbohydrates supply longer lasting energy, as well as other nutrients and fiber that the body needs. They are a better choice.
23Condensation making a disaccharide chemical reaction linking 2 monosaccharides
24Hydrolysis breaking a disaccharide water molecule splits occurs during digestion
25Complex Carbohydrates polysaccharides1.glycogen and 2.starchbuilt entirely of glucose3.fibervariety of monosaccharides and other carbohydrate derivatives
26Glycogen limited in meat and not found in plants not an important dietary source of carbohydrateBUTall glucose is stored as glycogenlong chains allow forhydrolysis and releaseof energy
27Starchesstored in plant cellsbody hydrolyzes plant starch to glucose
28STARCHES14. Starch in the body breaks down simple sugars. The body has to break down all sugar and starch into glucose to use it.
2915. All starchy foods are plant foods, seeds are the richest source; 70% of their weight is starch
30Fiber structural parts of plants found in all plant derived food bonds of fibers cannot be broken down during the digestive processminimal or no energy available
31Fiber types pectins lignins resistant starches classified as fibers cellulosepectinsligninsresistant starchesclassified as fibersescape digestion and absorption
32Fiber Characteristics soluble fibers, viscous, fermentableeasily digested by bacteria in colonassociated with protection against heart disease and diabeteslower cholesterol and glucose levelsfound in legumes and fruits
33Fiber The average American does not get enough FIBER in their diets. The National Cancer Institute recommends that the average person gets GRAMS of fiber every day.Two other common names for fiber are: ROUGHAGE or CELLULOSE.
34Fiber is important because it attracts WATER to the INTESTINES and helps move food through our systems faster. You have to have water along with fiber or it is not as effective.Benefits of fiber include a lowered risk of DIVERTICULITUS, HEMORRHOIDS and COLON or RECAL CANCER.
356. List the two types of fiber and the main functions they perform: Type of FiberFunctionA. SolubleShown to lower total blood cholesterolInsoluble*Will NOT digest or dissolveHelps move food through the body
36Fiber only comes from PLANT food sources Fiber only comes from PLANT food sources. You CANNOT get fiber from animal food sources.Foods that are high in fiber include:Fruits and Veggies (Especially the Skins!)Whole GrainsLegumes/BeansBranWays to increase fiber in the diet include:Add Whole Grains (At least 3 oz. per day)Use Whole Wheat FlourEat the Skins
38When a product claims that it is “Whole Wheat” or “Whole Grain”, it must use the ENTIRE wheat kernel, or ALL THREE parts.Other products, like white bread and rice, usually only use the ENDOSPERM, which is the LEAST beneficial part of the wheat kernel.ENRICHED: some of the nutrients that were lost in processing are added back into the product.FORTIFIED: 10% more of the Daily Value for the nutrient is being added.
39Fiber insoluble and not easily fermented promote bowel movements alleviate constipationfound in grains and vegetables
40DRI and Fiber distinguish fibers by source dietary fibers: naturally in intact plantsfunctional fibers: extracted from plants or manufacturedtotal fiber: sum of the 2
41Carbohydrate Digestion break down into glucosebody is able to absorb and uselarge starch moleculesextensive breakdowndisaccharidesbroken oncemonosaccharidesdon’t need to be broken down
42Carbohydrate Digestion begins in mouthchewing releases salivaenzyme amylase hydrolyzes starch to polysaccharides and maltosestomachno enzymes available to break down starchacid does some breakdownfibers in starch provide feeling of fullness
43small intestinemajority of carbohydrate digestion takes place herepancreatic amylase reduces carbs to glucose chains or disaccharidesspecific enzymes finish the jobmaltasemaltose into 2 glucosesucrasesucrose into glucose and fructoselactaselactose into glucose and galactose
44large intestine1-4 hours for sugars and starches to be digestedonly fibers remainattract water, which softens stoolbacteria ferment some fiberswater, gas, short-chain fatty acids (used for energy)
45Carbohydrate Absorption glucose can be absorbed in the mouthmajority absorbed in small intestineactive transportglucose and galacticfacilitated diffusionfructosesmaller rise in blood glucose
46Lactose Intolerance more lactose is consumed than can be digested lactose molecules attract watercause floating, abdominal discomfort, diarrheaintestinal bacteria feed on undigested lactoseproduce acid and gas
47Lactose Intolerance age, damage, medication, diarrhea, malnutrition management requires dietary change6 grams (1/2 cup) usually tolerabletake in graduallyhard cheeses & cottage cheeseenzyme drops or tabletslactose free diet is extremely difficult to accomplish
49Carbohydrate Metabolism 1/3 of body’s glycogen is stored in liverreleased as glucose to bloodstreameat – intake glucoseliver condenses extra glucose to glycogenblood glucose fallsliver hydrolyzes glycogen to glucoseGlycogen is bulky, so we store only so much: short term energy supplyFat is the long term energy supply.
50Glucose for Energy enzymes break apart glucose – yielding energy inadequate supply of carbohydratesketone bodies (fat fragments) are an alternate energy source during starvationexcess ketones can lead to ketosis: imbalance of acids in bodyminimum of 50 – 100 grams of carbs/day are needed to avoid ketosis
51Glucose Homeostasismaintaining an even balance of glucose is controlled by insulin and glucagoninsulinmoves glucose into the bloodglucagonbrings glucose out of storage
52maintaining balancebalanced meals at regular intervalsfiber and some fat slow the digestive process downglucose gets into the blood slow and steady
53Maintaining Blood Glucose Homeostasis 1IntestineMaintaining Blood Glucose HomeostasisWhen a person eats,blood glucose rises.2PancreasHigh blood glucose stimulatesthe pancreas to release insulin.Insulin3Insulin stimulates the uptake ofglucose into cells and storageas glycogen in the liver andmuscles. Insulin also stimulatesthe conversion of excessglucose into fat for storage.LiverFat cellMuscle4As the body's cells useglucose, blood levels decline.5PancreasLow blood glucose stimulatesthe pancreas to releaseglucagon into the bloodstream.Glucagon6Glucagon stimulates livercells to break down glycogenand release glucose into theblood.aGlucoseInsulinGlucagonGlycogenLivera The stress hormoneepinephrine and other hormonesalso bring glucose out of storage.7Blood glucose begins torise.
54Imbalancediabetesafter food intake, blood glucose rises and is not regulated because insulin is inadequatehypoglycemiablood glucose drops dramaticallytoo much insulin, activity, inadequate food intake, illnessdiet adjustment includes fiber-rich carbs and protein
55Glycemic Indexway of classifying food according to their ability to raise blood glucosemuch controversy
56Sugar ½ comes from natural sources, ½ from refined and added sucrose, corn syrup, honeyexcess can lead to nutrient deficiencies and tooth decayempty caloriessugar and starch break down in the mouth
57Sugar recommended intake added sugar = no more than 10% of energy intake
58Starch and Fiber diet that includes starch, fiber and natural sugars whole grains, vegetables, legumes, fruitsmay protect against heart disease and strokereduces the risk of type 2 diabetesenhances the health of the large intestinecan promote weight loss
59Starch and Fiber starch intake 45-65% 225 – 325 grams (DV is 300 grams)kcal/2000 kcalRDA is 130 gramsfiber intakeDaily Value is 25 grams/2000 kcal