Lung volume Tidal Volume – amount of air breathed in & out during normal breathing Vital Capacity - amount of air breathed in & out with max inspiration & expiration. Spirometer – apparatus for measuring lung volume
Cardiovascular parameters Stroke volume – amount of blood the heart ejects from 1 left ventricular contraction –Average resting – ml/beat –Exercise – ml/beat Cardiac output – amount of blood heart can eject in 1 minute. –Average resting – 5 L/min –Exercise – L/min
Cardiovascular parameters cont. During exercise oxygen demands to working muscles increases driving the increase of stroke volume and heart rate, therefore increasing cardiac output. Important to athletes – the stronger the heart, the greater the stroke volume, increasing the amount of oxygen available to muscles.
Cardiovascular fitness testing VO 2max – how well a person can use oxygen while exercising. More fit athletes will have a higher VO 2max. Average male athletes – 35 ml/min Average female athletes – 27 ml/min Requires lab equipment
Cardiovascular fitness testing cont. Harvard Step Test –Step up and down on platform for 5 minutes –Take heart rate 1, 2, & 3 after finishing
Cardiovascular fitness testing cont. 12 minute run/walk test – measure distance covered in 12 minutes. Calculate estimated VO 2max –( X kilometers)
Effect exercise has on Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems (short term) Cardiovascular System –Increased heart rate –Decreased blood flow to non-muscular tissue –Dilation of capillaries to increase blood flow to muscle tissue –Increased arterial pressure –Increased body temperature
Effect exercise has on Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems (short term) Respiratory System –Increased respiration rate –Expiration requires energy
Effect exercise has on Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems (long term) Reduction in BP Decrease in total cholesterol Decrease in body fat stores Decrease in feelings of anxiety, tension, & depression Increased heart function
Aerobic & Anaerobic Aerobic –Bodys large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time.
Aerobic & Anaerobic Anaerobic –Short period of activity where body is working so hard demands for oxygen & fuel exceeds the rate of supply –Muscles have to rely on stored reserves for fuel. –Takes the body into state of oxygen debt.
Warm Up & Cool Down Warm Up –Prepares body for training by increasing muscle & body temp –May include walking, jogging, slow cycling, or anything that will allow the athlete to gradually increase the intensity of their specific sport.
Warm Up & Cool Down Cool Down –Gradually slowing of exercise to allow all body systems to return to a resting state. –Best time to use static stretching to increase flexibility
Cardiovascular Training Methods Intervals – series of repeated bouts of strenuous exercise alternated with periods of relatively lighter exercise or rest Advantages –Control of stress, systematic approach, observable progress, can be performed anywhere, no special equipment
Cardiovascular Training Methods cont. Intervals –Overload accomplished by manipulation of 5 variables: Rate/distance of interval # of reps Rest time Type of activity during rest Frequency of training per wk –Ex: running 4 X 200 m on the track at 75% max speed w/ 4 min. rest
Cardiovascular Training Methods cont. Fartlek – Swedish word speed play –Alternating fast and slow running over natural terrain –Work & rest intervals not timed –Builds both aerobic & anaerobic capacities
Cardiovascular Training Methods cont. Fartlek –Ex: while on a jog increasing pace every now and then
Cardiovascular Training Methods cont. Circuit – series of exercise stations with brief rest intervals between each station.
Cardiovascular Training Methods cont. Continuous – activity without rest intervals. –Usually between 60 – 80% max heart rate –Should last at least 30 minutes. –Threshold pace – comfortably hard pace –Long slow distance – slower pace maintain for longer periods of time.
F.I.T. Frequency – how often training occurs during a week –3 X wk –7 X wk –10 X wk (two a days)
F.I.T. Intensity – how hard the athlete works –Target Heart Rate 220 – age = Max Heart Rate Moderate intensity – 50-70% MHR Vigorous intensity – 70-85% MHR
F.I.T. Intensity –Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) BORG scale –Based on perceptions of physical exertions including increased heart rate, respiration, sweating, & muscle fatigue –Scale – 6-20 –Moderate intensity = 12-14
F.I.T. Time –How long the training session lasts –Ex: 20 minutes, 5 miles