12Lung volumeTidal Volume – amount of air breathed in & out during normal breathingVital Capacity - amount of air breathed in & out with max inspiration & expiration.Spirometer – apparatus for measuring lung volume
14Cardiovascular parameters Stroke volume – amount of blood the heart ejects from 1 left ventricular contractionAverage resting – ml/beatExercise – ml/beatCardiac output – amount of blood heart can eject in 1 minute.Average resting – 5 L/minExercise – L/min
15Cardiovascular parameters cont. During exercise oxygen demands to working muscles increases driving the increase of stroke volume and heart rate, therefore increasing cardiac output.Important to athletes – the stronger the heart, the greater the stroke volume, increasing the amount of oxygen available to muscles.
16Cardiovascular fitness testing VO2max – how well a person can use oxygen while exercising.More fit athletes will have a higher VO2max.Average male athletes – 35 ml/minAverage female athletes – 27 ml/minRequires lab equipment
18Cardiovascular fitness testing cont. Harvard Step TestStep up and down on platform for 5 minutesTake heart rate 1, 2, & 3 after finishing
19Cardiovascular fitness testing cont. 12 minute run/walk test – measure distance covered in 12 minutes.Calculate estimated VO2max( X kilometers)
20Cardiovascular System Effect exercise has on Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems (short term)Cardiovascular SystemIncreased heart rateDecreased blood flow to non-muscular tissueDilation of capillaries to increase blood flow to muscle tissueIncreased arterial pressureIncreased body temperature
21Effect exercise has on Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems (short term) Increased respiration rateExpiration requires energy
22Effect exercise has on Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems (long term) Reduction in BPDecrease in total cholesterolDecrease in body fat storesDecrease in feelings of anxiety, tension, & depressionIncreased heart function
23Aerobic & Anaerobic Aerobic Body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time.
24Aerobic & Anaerobic Anaerobic Short period of activity where body is working so hard demands for oxygen & fuel exceeds the rate of supplyMuscles have to rely on stored reserves for fuel.Takes the body into state of oxygen debt.
25Warm Up & Cool Down Warm Up Prepares body for training by increasing muscle & body tempMay include walking, jogging, slow cycling, or anything that will allow the athlete to gradually increase the intensity of their specific sport.
26Warm Up & Cool Down Cool Down Gradually slowing of exercise to allow all body systems to return to a resting state.Best time to use static stretching to increase flexibility
27Cardiovascular Training Methods Intervals – series of repeated bouts of strenuous exercise alternated with periods of relatively lighter exercise or restAdvantagesControl of stress, systematic approach, observable progress, can be performed anywhere, no special equipment
28Cardiovascular Training Methods cont. IntervalsOverload accomplished by manipulation of 5 variables:Rate/distance of interval# of repsRest timeType of activity during restFrequency of training per wkEx: running 4 X 200 m on the track at 75% max speed w/ 4 min. rest
29Cardiovascular Training Methods cont. Fartlek – Swedish word “speed play”Alternating fast and slow running over natural terrainWork & rest intervals not timedBuilds both aerobic & anaerobic capacities
30Cardiovascular Training Methods cont. FartlekEx: while on a jog increasing pace every now and then
31Cardiovascular Training Methods cont. Circuit – series of exercise stations with brief rest intervals between each station.
32Cardiovascular Training Methods cont. Continuous – activity without rest intervals.Usually between 60 – 80% max heart rateShould last at least 30 minutes.Threshold pace – comfortably hard paceLong slow distance – slower pace maintain for longer periods of time.
33F.I.T. Frequency – how often training occurs during a week 3 X wk 10 X wk (two a days)
34F.I.T. Intensity – how hard the athlete works Target Heart Rate 220 – age = Max Heart RateModerate intensity – 50-70% MHRVigorous intensity – 70-85% MHR
35F.I.T. Intensity Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) BORG scale Based on perceptions of physical exertions including increased heart rate, respiration, sweating, & muscle fatigueScale – 6-20Moderate intensity = 12-14
36F.I.T. Time How long the training session lasts Ex: 20 minutes, 5 miles