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Performance Enhancement

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Presentation on theme: "Performance Enhancement"— Presentation transcript:

1 Performance Enhancement
Cardiovascular/Respiratory Systems and Athletic Performance

2 Functions of the Cardiovascular System
Deliver oxygen & nutrients to body tissues Carry wastes from the cells

3 Anatomy of Cardiovascular System
Atrium Ventricles Tricuspid Valve Bicuspid Valve

4 Anatomy of Cardiovascular System cont.
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve Aortic Semilunar Valve Superior & Inferior Vena Cava Pulmonary Artery Pulmonary Vein

5 Anatomy of Cardiovascular System cont.
Arteries – Carry blood away from the heart Veins – Carry blood to the heart Capillaries – microscopic vessels, oxygen/nutrient exchange

6 Functions of Respiratory System
Respiration – gas exchange Ventilation – inhaling & exhaling air in & out of the lungs

7 Anatomy of Respiratory System
Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea

8 Anatomy of Respiratory System cont.
Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli

9 Blood Pressure Normal – 120/80 mmHg Systolic – heart is contracting
Diastolic – heart is relaxing

10 Respiratory Rate Average – bpm

11 Pulse rate Average resting 60 – 100 bpm Carotid Brachial Radial

12 Lung volume Tidal Volume – amount of air breathed in & out during normal breathing Vital Capacity - amount of air breathed in & out with max inspiration & expiration. Spirometer – apparatus for measuring lung volume


14 Cardiovascular parameters
Stroke volume – amount of blood the heart ejects from 1 left ventricular contraction Average resting – ml/beat Exercise – ml/beat Cardiac output – amount of blood heart can eject in 1 minute. Average resting – 5 L/min Exercise – L/min

15 Cardiovascular parameters cont.
During exercise oxygen demands to working muscles increases driving the increase of stroke volume and heart rate, therefore increasing cardiac output. Important to athletes – the stronger the heart, the greater the stroke volume, increasing the amount of oxygen available to muscles.

16 Cardiovascular fitness testing
VO2max – how well a person can use oxygen while exercising. More fit athletes will have a higher VO2max. Average male athletes – 35 ml/min Average female athletes – 27 ml/min Requires lab equipment


18 Cardiovascular fitness testing cont.
Harvard Step Test Step up and down on platform for 5 minutes Take heart rate 1, 2, & 3 after finishing

19 Cardiovascular fitness testing cont.
12 minute run/walk test – measure distance covered in 12 minutes. Calculate estimated VO2max ( X kilometers)

20 Cardiovascular System
Effect exercise has on Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems (short term) Cardiovascular System Increased heart rate Decreased blood flow to non-muscular tissue Dilation of capillaries to increase blood flow to muscle tissue Increased arterial pressure Increased body temperature

21 Effect exercise has on Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems (short term)
Increased respiration rate Expiration requires energy

22 Effect exercise has on Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems (long term)
Reduction in BP Decrease in total cholesterol Decrease in body fat stores Decrease in feelings of anxiety, tension, & depression Increased heart function

23 Aerobic & Anaerobic Aerobic
Body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time.

24 Aerobic & Anaerobic Anaerobic
Short period of activity where body is working so hard demands for oxygen & fuel exceeds the rate of supply Muscles have to rely on stored reserves for fuel. Takes the body into state of oxygen debt.

25 Warm Up & Cool Down Warm Up
Prepares body for training by increasing muscle & body temp May include walking, jogging, slow cycling, or anything that will allow the athlete to gradually increase the intensity of their specific sport.

26 Warm Up & Cool Down Cool Down
Gradually slowing of exercise to allow all body systems to return to a resting state. Best time to use static stretching to increase flexibility

27 Cardiovascular Training Methods
Intervals – series of repeated bouts of strenuous exercise alternated with periods of relatively lighter exercise or rest Advantages Control of stress, systematic approach, observable progress, can be performed anywhere, no special equipment

28 Cardiovascular Training Methods cont.
Intervals Overload accomplished by manipulation of 5 variables: Rate/distance of interval # of reps Rest time Type of activity during rest Frequency of training per wk Ex: running 4 X 200 m on the track at 75% max speed w/ 4 min. rest

29 Cardiovascular Training Methods cont.
Fartlek – Swedish word “speed play” Alternating fast and slow running over natural terrain Work & rest intervals not timed Builds both aerobic & anaerobic capacities

30 Cardiovascular Training Methods cont.
Fartlek Ex: while on a jog increasing pace every now and then

31 Cardiovascular Training Methods cont.
Circuit – series of exercise stations with brief rest intervals between each station.

32 Cardiovascular Training Methods cont.
Continuous – activity without rest intervals. Usually between 60 – 80% max heart rate Should last at least 30 minutes. Threshold pace – comfortably hard pace Long slow distance – slower pace maintain for longer periods of time.

33 F.I.T. Frequency – how often training occurs during a week 3 X wk
10 X wk (two a days)

34 F.I.T. Intensity – how hard the athlete works Target Heart Rate
220 – age = Max Heart Rate Moderate intensity – 50-70% MHR Vigorous intensity – 70-85% MHR

35 F.I.T. Intensity Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) BORG scale
Based on perceptions of physical exertions including increased heart rate, respiration, sweating, & muscle fatigue Scale – 6-20 Moderate intensity = 12-14

36 F.I.T. Time How long the training session lasts
Ex: 20 minutes, 5 miles

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