6 Common Structure Types (cont’d) Box culvertsIncludes precast reinforced concrete box culverts, corrugated steel and aluminum box culverts, and corrugated steel long span culvertsNot unusual to see concrete box culverts replace small, single span bridgesLocation and Design Manual, Volume 3, Section 1008 for design criteria
9 Common Structure Types (cont’d) Three sided culvertsIncludes precast reinforced concrete flat-topped culverts and precast reinforced concrete arch sectionsFlat-topped available from 14 to 34 ft. spanArch available from 12 to 42 ft. spanLocation and Design Manual, Volume 3, Section 1008 for design criteria
14 Common Structure Types (cont’d) Bridges (Bridge Design Manual, Section 200)Superstructures consisting of cast-in-place concrete slabs, prestressed concrete box or I-Beams, and structural steel beams and welded plate girdersShallow abutments with spill-though earthslopes are preferred for stream crossingsPier type typically depends on what feature is being crossed by bridge
19 Factors Affecting Structure Type Economic considerationsSite constraintsHydraulic requirementsSubsurface conditionsMaintenance of trafficConstruction timeUtilities (rare)
20 Economic Considerations General hierarchy of construction costs (least to most expensive)Pipe culvertBox culvertThree sided culvertBridgeOther factors (hydraulics, subsurface conditions, etc.) can outweigh general hierarchy
23 Limitations on Use of Common Structure Types Culverts – Material durability, minimum and maximum cover restrictions, subsurface conditions, structure skew relative to roadway, maintenance of trafficBridge superstructures - Curved roadway alignment, structure skew relative to roadway, required span length, maintenance of traffic
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