2Reporters on the Range: News from the Old West You and your partner are reporters for our classroom newspaper.Your goal is to discover and create a news article that addresses the big idea related to this unit. You will draw a question that you’ll investigate through the course of this unit.You will need to turn in an electronic copy of your news article that will be published in our class newspaper.
3Your checklistYou will have a copy of a checklist to follow through, which includes:Vocabulary cardsT-ChartGeographical Features Hot-dog bookCattle Drive Note-taking GuideBrain Pop Quiz on Westward ExpansionYour newspaper article
4Big IdeasMoving to new places changes the people, land, and culture of the new place as well as the place they left.Technology has many different types of consequences, depending on how people use that technology.Conflict causes change.
5Georgia Performance Standards SS5H3: The student will describe how life changed in America at the turn of the century.Describe the role of the cattle trails in the late 19th century; include the Black Cowboys of Texas, the Great Western Cattle Trail, and the Chisholm Trail.Describe the impact of westward expansion on Native Americans; include the Battle of the Little Bighorn and the relocation of Native Americans to reservations.
6Moving West ActivityUse index cards and make vocabulary cards for the following words. You will find the definitions in the next few slides:MigrationImmigrateEmigratePrice incentiveExodustersDroughtsHomestead Act
7What was “Westward Expansion?” The migration of people from the Eastern coast of the United States to the Pacific coast.It was one of the biggest human migrations of all time.Migration: A movement from one place to another.Emigrate : To leave one country to settle in another.Immigrate: To come into a new country to settle.Vocabulary:
8Why did people migrate ?In 1803 President Thomas Jefferson bought land through the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the size of the U.S.During the 1840’s thousands of families made the journey west by wagon or foot to California or Oregon.Many sold everything they had to make the trip to Independence, Missouri, where the Oregon Trail began. (It was a 2,000 mile journey).These Pioneers were pulled to the West by the stories they heard about the fertile and abundant farm land that existed.
9Why did people migrate? (cont.) The Homestead Act of 18621.Congress offered 160 acres of land, in the Great Plains Region, to adults who were U.S. citizens or wanted to become one.2. For a small amount of money they had to farm the land for 5 years and then it was theirs.VocabularyWhen price affects the decisions people make it is called a price incentive.
10Who Took Advantage of the Homestead Act? People from the eastern part of the U.S., where farmland was expensive.Settlers from Europe who were looking for larger farms.African American Settlers, called Exodusters ,settled in Kansas and other parts of the Great Plains. Between 1877 and 1879.(Benjamin “Pap” Singleton was the most famous Exoduster.)l
11Hardships on The Great Plains Look at the picture to the left. What hardships do you think settlers faced in the Great Plains?Winters were long and bitterly cold.Spring brought violent thunderstorms, floods and tornados.Summers were hot and dry and droughts were common. This made prairie fires common.Insects would eat their crops, clothing, and wood handles of farm tools.
12Adapting to the Great Plains Settlers built houses out of sod they cut from the prairie in the shape of bricks. They got the nickname, sodbusters.The farmers had to use wheat seeds used on Eastern European farms.The farmers dug deep wells to get water. Those who could afford it used windmills to pump their water.New and improved farm machinery such as plows, reapers, and threshers made work faster and easier.
13Map ActivityUsing your outline map of the U.S. in your social studies notebook, identify the following physical features:The Grand CanyonSalton SeaThe Great Salt LakeMojave Desert
14The Transcontinental Railroad The Pacific Railway Act (1862)Congress passed this act which set aside land from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean for the first transcontinental railroad.The Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroad companies began construction in 1863.The Central Pacific started in the west and the Union Pacific started in the central U.S., in the state of Nebraska.The two railroads met on May 10, 1869, at Promontory Summit, Utah.
15The Railroads Change the United States Take a few minutes to discuss with a partner how you think this new transcontinental railroad changed the nation.Settlers in the West could earn money selling their products to the eastern cities (i.e. cattle, wheat…)Western farmers could earn more money selling to people in the East.Businesses and factories in the East used the railroads to ship clothing, tools, and other goods to western towns and mining camps.Traveling to the West was easier and somewhat safer now.
16T-Chart ActivityHow did the railroads and the movement of people to the west, change the people, land, and the culture of the Great Plains?Make and complete a 3-column T-chart to show your understanding of the question above.
17Physical Features of the West As the country became “smaller”, people traveled west and came upon numerous physical features of the United States which were new and exciting.Let’s embark on a scavenger hunt to try and locate some of these physical features.!The Grand CanyonThe Salton SeaThe Great Salt LakeThe Mojave Desert
18Hot Dog Book Activity http://www.makingbooks.com/hotdog.shtml Using the links on the previous slide, research and make a hot dog book to describe the physical features of the Western Frontier.
19Cattle Drive ActivityUse the note taking guide worksheet to answer questions on the following information on Cattle DrivesCattle Drive Notetaking Guide
20The Cattle DrivesIn the 1860’s cattle was so abundant in Texas that one cow would sell for only $4.00.This same cattle could be sold in the Northern and Eastern United States for about $40.00 a piece.Supply and DemandThis is called:So what would you have done if you were a Texas cattle rancher?The only problem was……the railroads did not cross into Texas. The closest railheads (a town where railroad tracks begin or end) were hundreds of miles away.
21The Cattle Drives The solution was… …to “drive” the cattle to places like Abilene, Kansas so they could be put on trains and shipped to stockyards in the northern and eastern part of the United States.The most popular trail was the Chisholm Trail, which started in San Antonio, Texas and ended in Kansas.Another popular trail was the Great Western Trail, which start in Bandera, Texas and ended in Ogallala, Nebraska.Click on the links below to read more about the cattle drives.l
22What was life like for the cowhands who worked on these cattle drives? Life on the DrivesWhat was life like for the cowhands who worked on these cattle drives?
23The End of The Cattle Drives The cattle drives only lasted for about 20 years.The Homesteaders of the Great Plains region were getting upset that the cattle were trampling their new land and their crops.to keep the cattle drives off of their land they put up fences with barbed wireWhat do you think were some causes for the end of this important era for the West?2. The railroads began to grow. Railroads were built in Texas in the 1870’s, ending the need for cattle drives to northern railheads.3. Many cattle died during the abnormally cold winter of
24Black CowboysMany African –Americans had just found freedom from slavery due to the 13th Amendment. For African Americans, the Old West represented a new home, a new beginning, and a new opportunity to enjoy freedom, which they so desperately wanted.Nat LoveBill Picket
25Native AmericansBeginning in the 1840’s, the U.S. government tried to convince Plains Indians to sell land and move to reservations.Reservations-land that the government set aside for American IndiansIndians fought the soldiers who tried to force them. They sometimes attacked settlers and miners to make them leave their land.
26Battle of Little Big Horn In the early 1870’s, gold was found in the hills of North Dakota.U. S. General George Custer tried to force the Lakota and Cheyenne Indians to leave the land.Led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull won in a battle near the Little Big Horn River.
27Movement to Reservations Through the late 1800’s, many tribes fought and lost against the U.S. GovernmentTribes that depended on hunting the buffalo could not continue their lifestyle.White settlers and hunters killed so many buffalo that the species came close to extinction.
28BrainPop ActivityClick on the link to view the BrainPop “Westward Expansion” You will have to log in: Log in: fcss, password: passwordBrainPop-Westward ExpansionWatch the video and then take the Graded Quiz and print the resultsTurn these in with your other activities.