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Classroom Management Theories. Dreikur’s Principal Teachings Discipline at its best is defined as self-control, based on social interest. Self-controlled.

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Presentation on theme: "Classroom Management Theories. Dreikur’s Principal Teachings Discipline at its best is defined as self-control, based on social interest. Self-controlled."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classroom Management Theories

2 Dreikur’s Principal Teachings Discipline at its best is defined as self-control, based on social interest. Self-controlled students are able to show initiative, make reasonable decisions, and assume responsibility in ways that benefit both themselves and others. Social interest refers to students' efforts to make the classroom comfortable and productive, based on understanding that such classrooms better meet their personal needs.

3 Dreikur’s Principal Teachings Good discipline occurs best in a democratic classroom. A democratic classroom is one in which teacher and students work together to make decisions about how the class will function. Good discipline cannot occur in autocratic or permissive classrooms.

4 Dreikur’s Principal Teachings In autocratic classrooms, the teacher makes all decisions and imposes them on students, leaving no opportunity for student initiative and responsibility. In permissive classrooms, the teacher fails to require that students comply with rules, conduct themselves humanely, or endure consequences for their misbehavior.

5 Dreikur’s Principal Teachings Almost all students have a compelling desire to feel they are a valued member of the class, that they belong. Students sense belonging when the teacher and others give them attention and respect, involve them in activities, and do not mistreat them. When students are unable to gain a sense of belonging in the class, they often turn to the mistaken goals of attention, power, revenge, and inadequacy.

6 Dreikur’s Principal Teachings When seeking attention, students talk out, show off, interrupt others, and demand teacher attention. When seeking power, they drag their heels, make comments under their breath, and sometimes try to show that the teacher can't make them do anything. When seeking revenge, they try to get back at the teacher and other students, by lying, subverting class activities, and maliciously disrupting the class. When seeking to display inadequacy, they withdraw from class activities and make no effort to learn.

7 Dreikur’s Principal Teachings Teachers should learn how to identify mistaken goals and deal with them. When teachers see evidence that students are pursuing mistaken goals, they should point out the fact by identifying the mistaken goal and discussing the faulty logic involved. They should do this in a friendly, non-threatening manner.

8 Dreikur’s Principal Teachings Teachers should learn how to identify mistaken goals and deal with them. When teachers see evidence that students are pursuing mistaken goals, they should point out the fact by identifying the mistaken goal and discussing the faulty logic involved. They should do this in a friendly, non-threatening manner.

9 Dreikur’s Principal Teachings Rules for governing class behavior should be formulated jointly by teacher and students. Tied to those rules should be the logical consequences of compliance or violation. It is the teacher's responsibility to see that stipulated consequences are invoked. Good behavior (following the rules) brings pleasant consequences such as enjoyment of learning and associating positively with others.

10 Dreikur’s Principal Teachings Misbehavior brings unpleasant consequences such as having to complete work at home or being excluded from normal class activities. Punishment should never be used in the classroom. Punishment is just a way for teachers to get back at students and show them who's boss, and is usually humiliating to the student. Punishment has many bad side effects and therefore should be supplanted with logical consequences agreed to by the class.

11 Kounin’s Principal Teachings Teachers need to know what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times. Kounin verified that teachers good in discipline displayed this trait, which he called withitness. Good lesson momentum helps keep students on track. Kounin used the term momentum to refer to teachers' starting lessons with dispatch, keeping lessons moving ahead, making transitions among activities efficiently, and bringing lessons to a satisfactory close.

12 Kounin’s Principal Teachings Smoothness in lesson presentation helps keep students involved. The term smoothness refers to steady progression of lessons, without abrupt changes or disturbing incidents. Effective teachers have systems for gaining student attention and clarifying expectations. Kounin called this tactic group alerting. Teachers must learn how to correct one pupil's behavior in a way that changes the behavior of others. This is called the Ripple effect.

13 Kounin’s Principal Teachings Effective teachers keep students attentive and actively involved. Such student accountability is maintained by regularly calling on students to respond, demonstrate, or explain. Teachers good in behavior management are able to attend to two or more events simultaneously. This skill, which Kounin called overlapping, is shown when teachers answer questions for students doing independent work while at the same time instructing a small group of students.

14 Kounin’s Principal Teachings Effective teachers see to it that students are not given overexposure to a particular topic. Overexposure produces satiation, meaning students have had their fill of the topic as shown through boredom, resistance, and misbehavior. Boredom [satiation] can be avoided by providing variety to lessons, the classroom environment and by pupil awareness of progress. Effective teachers make instructional activities enjoyable and challenging. Kounin described how fun and challenge delay satiation.

15 Jones’ Principal Teachings Approximately 95 percent of all student misbehavior consists of talking to neighbors and being out of one's seat, as well as generally goofing off, such as daydreaming and making noise. But it is this behavior that most often disrupts teaching and learning. On the average, teachers in typical classrooms lose approximately 50 percent of their teaching time because students are off-task or otherwise disrupting learning. This amounts to massive time wasting.

16 Jones’ Principal Teachings Most teaching time that is otherwise lost can be recouped when teachers use Say, See, Do Teaching, provide efficient help to students, use effective body language, and use incentive systems. These are the hallmarks of good behavior management. Say, See, Do Teaching is an instructional method that calls for frequent student response to teacher input. It keeps students actively alert and involved in the lesson.

17 Jones’ Principal Teachings Efficient arrangement of the classroom improves the likelihood of successful teaching and learning. This includes seating arrangements that permit the teacher to "work the crowd" as they supervise student work and provide help. Proper use of body language is one of the most effective discipline skills available to teachers. Body language includes eye contact, physical proximity, body carriage, facial expressions, and gestures.

18 Jones’ Principal Teachings Teachers set limits on student behavior not so much through rules as through subtle interpersonal skills. These are the skills that convey that teachers mean business. Students will work hard and behave well when given incentives to do so. These incentives are teachers' promises that students will receive, in return for proper behavior, rewards in the form of favorite activities that can be learned by all members of the group for the enjoyment of all members of the group.

19 Jones’ Principal Teachings To be effective, an incentive must be attractive to the entire group and be available equally to all. Incentives that are available only to certain members of the class will affect only the behavior of those few individuals and leave the class as a whole little changed. Students must learn to do their work without the teacher hovering over them. Jones calls students' reliance on teacher presence "helpless handraising."

20 Jones’ Principal Teachings He devised a method of providing help very efficiently to students who call for teacher assistance during independent work. Jones says to “ be positive, be brief and be gone." The goal of discipline is for students to assume responsibility for their actions. All aspects of learning are improved when students do so.

21 The Canter’s Principal Teachings Today's students have clear rights and needs that must be met if they are to be taught effectively. These students' rights and needs include a caring teacher who persistently works to foster the best interests of students. Teachers have rights and needs in the classroom as well. Teachers' rights include teaching in a classroom that is free from disruption, with support from parents and administrators as they work to help students.

22 The Canter’s Principal Teachings The most effective teachers are those who remain in control of the class while always remembering that their main duty is to help students learn and behave responsibly. Teachers must continually model through their own behavior the kind of trust and respect for students that they want students to show toward others. A good discipline plan, built upon trust and respect, is necessary for helping.

23 The Canter’s Principal Teachings Students limit their own counterproductive behavior. Such a discipline plan contains rules and consequences, and it must be fully understood and supported by students and their parents. Teachers should practice positive repetitions. Positive repetitions involve repeating directions as positive statements to students who are complying with class rules, for example, "Fred remembered to raise his hand. Good job."

24 The Canter’s Principal Teachings Negative consequences are penalties teachers invoke when students violate class expectations. They are brought to bear only when all else fails. They must be something students dislike (staying in after class, being isolated from the group) but must never be physically or psychologically harmful. Positive consequences are rewards, usually words or facial expressions, that teachers offer when students comply with class expectations. The Canters consider positive consequences to be very powerful.

25 The Canter’s Principal Teachings Today's teachers must both model and directly teach proper behavior. It is not enough for teachers simply to set limits and apply consequences. They must go well beyond that to actually teaching students how to behave responsibly in the classroom. Teachers can have success with a majority of students deemed difficult to manage. They can accomplish this by reaching out to those students, learning about their needs, interacting with them personally, and showing a constant willingness to help.

26 Ginott’s Principal Teachings Learning always takes place in the present tense, meaning teachers must not prejudge students or hold grudges. Discipline is little-by-little, step-by-step. The teacher's self- discipline is key. Model the behavior you want in students. Learning is always a personal matter to the student. Large classes often make teachers forget that each student-learner is an individual who must be treated as such..

27 Ginott’s Principal Teachings Teachers should always endeavor to use congruent communication, which is communication that is harmonious with students' feelings about situations and themselves The cardinal principle of congruent communication is that it addresses situations. It never addresses students' character or personality. Teachers at their best, using congruent communication, do not preach or moralize, nor impose guilt or demand promises. Instead, they confer dignity on their students by treating them as social equals capable of making good decisions.

28 Ginott’s Principal Teachings Teachers at their worst label students, belittle them, and denigrate their character: They usually do these things inadvertently. Effective teachers invite cooperation from their students by describing the situation and indicating what needs to be done. They do not dictate to students or boss them around, which provokes resistance. Teachers have a hidden asset upon which they should always call, namely, "How can I be most helpful to my students right now?"

29 Ginott’s Principal Teachings Teachers should feel free to express their anger, but in doing so should use I-messages rather than you- messages. Using an I-message, the teacher might say "I am very upset." Using a you-message, the teacher might say "You are being very rude." It is wise to use laconic language when responding to or redirecting student misbehavior. Laconic means short, concise, and brief, which describes the sort of responses Ginott advocates.

30 Ginott’s Principal Teachings Evaluative praise is worse than none at all and should never be used. An example of evaluative praise is "Good boy for raising your hand." Teachers should use appreciative praise when responding to effort or improvement. This is praise in which the teacher shows appreciation for what the student has done, without evaluating the student's character (e.g., "I can almost smell those pine trees in your drawing").

31 Ginott’s Principal Teachings Always respect students' privacy. Teachers should never pry when students do not wish to discuss personal matters, but should show they are available should students need to talk. Use sane messages when correcting misbehavior. Address what the student is doing, don't attack the student's character [personal traits]. Labeling disables. Use communication that is congruent with student's own feelings about the situation and themselves.

32 Ginott’s Principal Teachings Invite cooperation rather than demanding it. Teachers should express their feelings--anger--but in sane ways. "Sarcasm is hazardous. Praise can be dangerous; praise the act, not the student and in a situation that will not turn peers against the pupil. Apologies are meaningless unless it is clear that the person intends to improve. Teachers are at their best when they help pupils develop their self-esteem and to trust their own experience.

33 Linda Albert’s Principal Teachings Students choose their behavior. How they behave is not outside their control. Virtually all can behave properly when they see the need to do so. Students need to feel that they belong in the classroom. This means they must perceive themselves to be important, worthwhile, and valued. When students misbehave, their goal is usually either to gain attention, gain power, exact revenge, or avoid failure. At times, misbehavior can also occur because of exuberance or simply not knowing the proper way to behave.

34 Linda Albert’s Principal Teachings Teachers can only influence student behavior; they cannot directly control it. By knowing which goal students are seeking teachers can exert positive influence on behavior choices that students make. Teachers in general reflect three styles of classroom management: permissive, autocratic, and democratic. Of the three, the democratic style best promotes good discipline. Albert refers to these three styles as the hands-off, hands-on, and hands-joined styles.

35 Linda Albert’s Principal Teachings The Three C's -- capable, connect, and contribute - - are essential in helping students feel a sense of belonging. When students feel capable, they are able to connect personally with peers and teachers and able to make contributions to the class and elsewhere. With the three C's in place, the incidence of misbehavior drops dramatically. Teachers should work cooperatively with students to develop a classroom code of conduct. The code of conduct stipulates the kind of behavior expected of everyone in the class.

36 Linda Albert’s Principal Teachings Teachers should also work cooperatively with students to develop a set of consequences to be invoked when the classroom code of conduct is transgressed. When students participate in developing consequences, they are more likely to accept them as fair and reasonable. When conflicts occur between teacher and students, the teacher should remain cool and relaxed. Teachers should adopt a businesslike attitude and use a calm yet firm tone of voice.

37 Linda Albert’s Principal Teachings Encouragement is the most powerful teaching tool available to teachers. Few things motivate good behavior as much as does teacher encouragement. Teachers should remember that in order to develop a good system of discipline, they require the cooperation of students and parents. Both should be valued as partners and their contributions brought meaningfully into cooperative discipline.

38 B.F. Skinner’s Principal Teachings Even before Redl and Wattenberg published their suggestions for working with the group, a Harvard psychologist named Burrhus Frederic Skinner was making interesting findings about how our voluntary actions are affected by what happens to us immediately after we perform a given act.

39 B.F. Skinner’s Principal Teachings Skinner is respected as perhaps the greatest behavioral psychologist of all time. He earned his doctorate in psychology at Harvard in 1931 and from that time almost until his death in 1990 published articles and books based on his findings and beliefs about human behavior. During all those years, Skinner never concerned himself with classroom discipline. However, his followers saw the applicability of his findings, especially in regard to encouraging students to behave acceptably in the classroom. Those followers, sometimes referred to as "Neo- Skinnerians," devised and popularized the procedure of behavior modification which is used extensively in different realms of human learning

40 B.F. Skinner’s Principal Teachings Behavior modification (not a term Skinner used) refers to the overall procedure of shaping student behavior intentionally through reinforcement. This procedure still comprises a major part of many teachers' discipline systems,. particularly at the primary grade level. Constant reinforcement, provided every time a student performs a desired act, helps new learnings become established. The teacher might praise Jonathan every time he raises his hand, or privately compliment Mary every time she turns in required homework.

41 B.F. Skinner’s Principal Teachings Intermittent reinforcement, in which rewards are supplied only occasionally, is sufficient to maintain desired behavior once it has become established. After students have learned to come into the room and get immediately to work, the teacher will only occasionally need to express appreciation. Behaviors that are not reinforced soon disappear or, as Skinner said, become extinguished. If Roberto raises his hand in class but is never called on, he will sooner or later stop raising his hand.

42 B.F. Skinner’s Principal Teachings Successive approximation refers to a behavior-shaping progression in which behavior comes closer and closer to a preset goal. This process is evident when skills are being built. Here students are rewarded regularly for improvement. Punishment often has negative effects in behavior modification and hence is not used in the classroom. Skinner believed punishment could not extinguish inappropriate behavior.

43 B.F. Skinner’s Principal Teachings Although Skinner did not concern himself with classroom discipline per se, his discoveries concerning the shaping of desired behavior through reinforcement led directly to behavior modification, still used to speed and shape academic and social learning. Years ago many primary grade teachers used behavior modification as their entire discipline system, rewarding students who behaved properly and ignoring those who misbehaved. Very few teachers now use behavior modification as their discipline system,yet Skinner's principles of reinforcement are applied in classrooms everywhere.

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