2Causes of War in EuropeFailure of the Treaty of Versailles to bring lasting peace.Germany felt it was unfair, punished them.Dictators in Germany, Japan, and Italy promoted fanatical national pride, called fascism.Terrible worldwide depressionHit Germany especially hard because of WWI war reparations.
3Causes of War in EuropeFascist and Nazi aggression, and the failure of the League of Nations to act.Europe1935 Mussolini invaded Ethiopia.1936 Hitler took Rhineland.1938 annexed Austria, appeasement – Hitler got Sudetanland (part of Czech.)1939 Hitler took the rest, and invaded Poland.Britain and France declared war two days later.
4Japanese Aggression leads to war in Asia… 1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria.US issued the Stimson Doctrine – refused to recognize territory taken by force.1933 – League condemned Japanese aggression, Japan withdrew from League.1936 – Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis1937 – Japan invaded mainland China – this was the beginning of WW II in Asia (two years before it began in Europe.)
5Japanese Aggression1937 – Japan bombed and sank an American gunboat (Panay) and attacked three Standard Oil tankers.Apologized and paid reparationsPrivate boycott of Japanese goods1940 – Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy pledging to declare war on any nation that declared war on them.1941 – Japan signed non-aggression pact with Soviets, and established a protectorate over all of French Indochina.FDR froze Japanese assets, put an embargo on oil to Japan, put armed forces of Philippines under command of MacArthur.1941 – Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.
6US Enters the WarJapanese bomb Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941
7A Date That Will Live in Infamy Yesterday, 7 December 1941-a date which will live in infamy-the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its Government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese Ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese Government had deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian Islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives were lost. In addition American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.
8FDR’s War Message Continued Yesterday the Japanese Government also launched an attack against Malaya.Last night Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.Last night Japanese forces attacked Guam.Last night Japanese forces attacked thePhilippine Islands.Last night Japanese forces attacked Wake Island.This morning the Japanese attacked Midway Island.Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.As Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense.Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us.No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again.Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory, and our interests are in grave danger.With confidence in our armed forces-with the unbounded determination of our people-we will gain the inevitable triumph-so help us God.I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, 7 December, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.
9US Declares War on Germany and Italy On the morning of 11 December, the Government of Germany, pursuing its course of world conquest, declared war against the United States.The long-known and the long-expected has thus taken place. The forces endeavoring to enslave the entire world now are moving toward this hemisphere.Never before has there been a greater challenge to life, liberty, and civilization.Delay invites greater danger. Rapid and united effort by all of the peoples of the world who are determined to remain free will ensure a world victory of the forces of justice and of righteousness over the forces of savagery and of barbarism.Italy also has declared war against the United States.I therefore request the Congress to recognize a state of war between the United States and Germany, and between the United States and Italy.
10How did U.S. policy change from isolation to neutrality to total involvement? Hoover – U.S. should not enter into firm commitments to preserve the security of other nations. (isolationism)Viewed peace conferences and treaties as moral efforts and opposed using economic sanctions against aggressors. Thought this would lead to military involvement.Actively pursued friendly relations with Latin America – took a “good will” tour. Ended interventionist policies of Taft and Wilson in the region.
11FDR continued Hoover’s efforts in Latin America – pursued a good neighbor policy. Worldwide depression led to the rise of dictatorships in Italy in the 1920s and Japan and Germany in the 1930s.Their aggression made isolationists in America more determined to avoid war at all costs.
12NeutralityCongress adopted a series of Neutrality Acts (signed reluctantly by FDR) to ensure that the US would stay neutral if war broke out in Europe.Neutrality Act of 1935 – president could prohibit all shipments of arms and could forbid citizens to travel on ships of belligerent nations.Neutrality Act of 1936 – forbade extension of loans and credits to belligerents.Neutrality Act of 1937 – forbade shipment of arms to opposing sides in civil war in Spain.
13America First Committee 1940 – after WW II had begun – isolationists were alarmed at FDR’s pro-British policies.Formed the AMERICA FIRST COMMITTEE to mobilize public opinion against the war.Speakers like Charles Lindbergh traveled the country warning against the folly of getting involved in a second war in Europe.
14Agreement with British and French policy… As the British and French decided to “appease” Hitler, the U.S. went along with their policy.
15U.S. response to aggression FDR recognized the dangers of Fascist aggression, but was limited by the fact that most Americans favored isolation.1937 speech after Japan invaded Manchuria – urged democracies to act together to “quarantine” the aggressor.Public reaction was negative
16PreparednessWhile arguing for neutrality, FDR was able to press for security – Congress went along with arms buildup.Late 1938 US increased military and naval budgets by nearly 2/3.Isolationists accepted this, thinking it would be used to protect against possible invasion of the Western Hemisphere.
17Changing U.S. PolicyAs war broke out in Europe, most Americans became alarmed at the news of Nazi tanks, planes, troops conquering one nation after another.FDR believed British survival was necessary to US security.He began chipping away at Neutrality Laws.By 1940 most Americans accepted that U.S. defenses must be strengthened , but direct aid to Britain was widely debated.
18CASH and CARRY1939 – FDR persuaded Congress to adopt a less restrictive Neutrality Act.Belligerent could buy U.S. arms if it used its own ships to carry them and paid cash.Technically this was a neutral policy, in practice it strongly favored Britain.
19Selective Service Act 1940FDR persuaded Congress to enact a law for compulsory military service without actually naming Germany as a potential enemy.Provided for registration and training of 1.2 million troops.Isolationists opposed this peacetime draft, but were now outnumbered.
20Destroyers for Bases Deal September 1940 – British under assault by German bombing raids.German subs threatened the seas.FDR could not sell US destroyers to the British without alarming isolationists.Cleverly arranged a trade.Britain got 50 older destroyers (still serviceable) in exchange for giving the US right to build bases on British islands in the Caribbean.
21Arsenal of Democracy…December 1940 – FDR’s fireside chat – worried about German conquest of most of Europe, threat to US security and future democratic governments everywhere. Ready to end appearance of neutrality and give material aid to the British.
22Four FreedomsJanuary 1941, FDR addressed Congress and proposed lending money to the British for the purchase of US war materials.Justified this policy as a defense of “four freedoms”.US must stand behind those nations that were committed to freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear…
23Lend-Lease Act FDR proposed ending cash and carry Permit Britain to obtain all US arms it needed on creditLike lending a neighbor a garden hose to put out a fire…America First Committee campaigned against thisSigned into law in March 1941
24Less and Less NeutralMet with Churchill in 1941 to discuss peace objectives for when the war ended. (self-determination, no territorial expansion, free trade) Atlantic CharterJuly 1941 – US navy would escort British ships carrying lend-lease materials and after the American destroyer GREER was attacked by German sub FDR ordered navy to “shoot on sight”! US was now fighting an undeclared naval war on Germany.
25Problems with JapanAfter Japan joined the Axis powers in 1940, the US cut off exports of steel and scrap iron.After Japan occupied French Indochina, FDR froze all Japanese credits in the US and cut off their access to vital materials such as oil.Japan tried to negotiate an agreement with the US – unsuccessful.FDR hoped to avoid conflict until forces in the Pacific were stronger.Japan hoped to act quickly because of limited oil supplies.Dec – attack on Pearl Harbor.
26US Reasons for Entry… Fear of German aggression Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor
27Summary of US Reasons for Entry Sympathy for Britain and FranceHad already followed “cash and carry” policy which favored them, allowing them to buy arms if they used their own ships and paid cash.By 1941 following “lend-lease” allowing Britain to get what it needed on credit.US navy escorting British ships with orders to attack all German ships on sight
28People Hitler – Der Fuhrer – Germany, WW II Mussolini – Il Duce – Italy, WW IIWinston Churchill – British Prime Minister, WW IIFDR – US President during WW IINeville Chamberlain – British Prime Minister prior to Churchill, appeased Hitler.Charles de Gaulle - France
29People Joseph Stalin – Soviet leader in WW II Douglas MacArthur – General in the Pacific – ordered by FDR to escape to Australia leaving soldiers to the Japanese (Bataan). Said “I shall return.” He did, two years later.Robert Oppenheimer – scientist who headed the building of the bomb. “I am become Death, the Destroyer of Worlds.”
30PeopleHarry Truman – US President after FDR’s death. Ordered bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Rosie the Riveter – fictional young woman who worked in a defense plant while boyfriend in the marines. Song and images used in posters for recruitment of women to the workforce.
31Group Topics for WW II War in Europe War in Pacific Mobilization at HomeNew TechnologySocial Effects – include African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Japanese AmericansMeetings – Atlantic Charter, Casablanca, Teheran, Yalta, Potsdam
32Causes of the War in Europe Germany’s economy was a mess! Inflation was astronomical… to the point where it would take a wheelbarrow full of Reichmarks to buy a loaf of bread. Kids would use stacks of money to build castles in the street. Germany needed inspiration, they needed a new leader…that was Adolf Hitler.
33Causes Cont.With a nationalistic feeling growing rapidly in the heart of Germany, Hitler had no problem taking power. His ally, Benito Mussolini, quickly rose to power in Italy as well.
34Main Battle Techniques BlitzkriegDivide and conquerSquad base warfareFlankingAmbush
35Battle of Britain Greatest air assault the world had yet seen June 1940 to June 194130,000 Londoners killed 120,000 woundedMassive losses – Brits refused to surrenderSent kids to country for safetySlept in the subways
36Battle of StalingradHitler realized the Brits weren’t going to surrender – turned his attention to Soviets (breaking the Non-Aggression Pact)June 1941 – poured across Soviet borderBombing lasted over two monthsHouse to house fighting in the rubble of StalingradScorched earth policyJan. 31, 1943 surviving Germans surrenderedTurning point of war in East. Soviets began to regain lost territory.Lessons of history – Napoleon (winter in Russia)
37D-Day Invasion of Normandy, France June 6, 1944 Largest landing by sea 4600 invasion craft, bombers, 23,000 airborne soldiers dropped in, 150,000 came ashoreWithin a week ½ million ashoreBy late August Paris was liberated
38General InfoNazi Arms Stretched as far north as Norway, east to Stalingrad, south to Egypt, and West to the English Channel.The total estimated human loss of life caused by World War II, irrespective of political alignment, was roughly 62 million people. The civilian toll was around 37 million, the military toll about 25 million. The Allies lost around 51 million people, and the Axis lost 11 million. (Note that some Axis countries switched sides and reentered the war on the side of the Allies; those nations are included in the Allied count, regardless of when the deaths occurred.) There was a disproportionate loss of life and property; some nations had a higher casualty rate than others, due to a number of factors including military tactics, crimes against humanity, economic preparedness and the level of technology.
39End of War in EuropeMay 8, 1945Germany surrendered, Hitler committed suicideMarch 1945 Americans crossed the RhineApril 1945 Soviets fought their way into BerlinApril 25, 1945 US and Soviets met at the Elbe River
40War in the Pacific Begins with Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 18 warships sunk/heavily damaged8 of 9 battleships lostDid not lose aircraft carriers (they were at sea) or submarines which would be crucial to the war effort against Japan
41Bataan Death March – May 1942 FDR knew the Philippines would fall, evacuated MacArthur76,000 Filipinos and Americans became POWsDivided into groups and marched 60 miles to railroad, at least 10,000 died.Wasn’t known about until 3 years later when 3 survivors escaped.Japanese General who organized it was executed.
42Battle of Coral Sea – May 1942 First naval combat carried out entirely by aircraft. Enemy ships never saw each other.5 day battleUS lost the Lexington, the Yorktown was damaged.Halted the Japanese advance, stood up to a superior fleet (NE of Australia)Prevented establishment of bases that could be used to bomb Australia.
43Battle of Midway 1942 Fought in the air Demolished 3 of 4 Japanese carriersLeft Japan unable to launch offensive attackAfter this , US controlled the central PacificJapan didn’t have the resources to replace lost ships
44Guadalcanal – August 1942 11,000 marines landed 2,200 Japan fled into the jungleJapanese slipped away in Feb. 1943, un-noticed.First jungle warfare for the marinesUsed island as a base for ISLAND-HOPPING
45IWO JIMA – 1944-45 One of the bloodiest of the war Japanese had guns in concrete bunkersLiving in caves/tunnelsUS bombed by air for 74 daysMid Feb. 1945, marines stormed the beachIn 3 days, they gained 700 yardsTook a month to secure the island
46Okinawa – April to June 1945 Last obstacle to invasion of Japan 100,000 defenders350 miles from JapanPledged to fight to the deathAfter 3 months of fighting the remaining 7000 Japanese surrenderedCostliest engagement in the Pacific – 50,000 American casualties
47End of war in Japan August 6, 1945 August 9, 1945 Hiroshima (site of large army base)140,000 killed in the blast or within a few monthsThousands survived with radiation and burns90% of buildings destroyedAugust 9, 1945NagasakiAugust 14, 1945 terms of surrender acceptedSeptember 2, 1945 formal surrender signed on the USS Missouri
51Land MinesLand mines explode when something gets close to it
52Jet EnginesIs an engine that discharges a fast moving jet of fluid to generate thrust in accordance with Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion
53Ballistic MissileIs a missile that follows a sub-orbital, ballistic flight path with the objective of delivering a warhead to a predetermined target
54V-2 RocketWas the first man made object launched into space, during test flights that reached an altitude of 189 km in 1994
55Nerve Agent AKA Nerve Gases Are a class or phosphorus-containing organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanism by which transfer messages to organsPoisoning by nerve agent leads to contraction of pupils, profuse salivation, convulsions, involuntary urination and defection, and eventual death by asphyxiation as control is lost over respiratory muscles
56PenicillinMade a major difference in the number of deaths and amputations caused by infected wounds amongst Allied forces
57Weapons of World War II Plastic explosives Flame throwers Proximity fusesRocketsJet airplanesAtomic weaponsChemical gases/genocide
58WeaponryAircraft – Superior German aircraft allowed the German armies to overrun Western Europe with great speed in 1940, largely assisted by lack of Allied aircraft.Vehicles – German arms manufacturers and the Wehrmacht had begun secretly developing tanks.Ships – Naval warfare changed dramatically during WWII, with the ascent of the aircraft carrier to the premier vessel of the fleet, and the impact of increasingly capable submarines (originally known as U-boats by the Germans) on the course of the war.
59WeaponsSmall Arms Development – The state of small arms made a huge leap during the period around the war. New productions methods for weapons such as stamping, riveting, and welding came into being to produce the number of arms needed.The Atomic Bomb - The massive research and development demands of the war included the Manhattan Project, the effort to quickly develop an atomic bomb, or nuclear fission warhead. It was perhaps the most profound military development of the war, and had a great impact on the scientific community, among other things creating a network of national laboratories in the United States.
60Electronics, Communications, & Intelligence By the middle of the war, such instruments as radar and ASDIC (sonar) had proven their value. Additionally, equipment designed for communications and interception of those communications was becoming critical.The semi-secret ENIAC and the super-secret Colossus demonstrated that devices using thousands of valves could be reliable enough to be useful paying the way for the post-war development of stored program computers.
62The Army By 1941 the army had grown to more than 1.4 million men. Men between 18 and 45 were subject to the draft.15 million men served in the armed forces.
63Economic ConversionA second War Powers Act empowered the government to allot materials and facilities as needed for defense with penalties for those who failed to comply.The War Production Board directed the conversion of industrial manufacturing to war production.The pressure of war time needs and the stimulus of government spending sent the gross national product soaring from 100 billion to 214 billion in 5 years.
64Financing the WarTo raise funds the President preferred raising taxes to borrowing.The Revenue Act of 1942 provided for only about $7 billion in increased revenue which was only half that was recommended by the treasury.The government borrowed about 55% of the money from the public to finance the war.War bonds were heavily invested in.By the end of the war, the national debt had grown to over $260 billion.
65In 1942 Congress authorized the Office of Price Administration to set price ceilings. Rationing of goods such as sugar, coffee, gasoline, and meats.
70Atlantic Charter - August 1941 FDR and ChurchillSecret meetingAgree on peace objectives for end of warSelf-determination, no territorial expansion, free trade
71Casablanca - 1943 FDR and Churchill Agreed to invade Sicily and demand “unconditional surrender” from Axis powersMade Stalin nervous b/c he wasn’t includedDelay second front – Soviets being slaughtered
72TeheranFirst meeting of the BIG THREE – FDR, Churchill and StalinAgreed Britain and America would begin drive to liberate France in Spring ’44Soviets would invade Germany and eventually join war against Japan
73Yalta – Feb. 1945Big Three met on Black Sea to discuss what would happen after victory in EuropeGermany divided into occupation zonesFree elections in liberated countries of Eastern EuropeSoviets to enter war against JapanUN to be formed at conference in San Francisco
74Potsdam – July 1945New Big Three – Stalin, Truman (replaced FDR who died) , and Atlee (replaced Churchill who lost power)Warn Japan to surrender or face utter destruction (we have tested the bomb and are ready to use it)Agree to hold war crime trials of Nazi leaders