2ROADS 1795 Wilderness Road (trail blazed by Daniel Boone) – opened to covered wagons and stagecoachesKY to Knoxville, TN.4 mphTravel difficult, about 12 people per coachUsually did some walking and riding to ease pain!Wagon – avg. 2 mphCoach – avg. 6-8 mphCarried passengers, mail, packages, etc.
4PHILADELPHIA-LANCASTER TURNPIKE - privately builtFirst important turnpike1st broken-stone gravel surface in America built to formal plansOpened up territory northwest of the Ohio RiverProvided cheap transportation between the coast and the “bread basket”.
5General Information Stimulated construction of short toll roads By mid 1820s connected most major citiesAbout 4,000 miles of turnpikes completed by 1821Paved with crushed stones.Western traffic moved along the Frederick Turnpike to Cumberland, and then along the National Road to Wheeling on the Ohio River in 1818, and then to Columbus and the Northwest Territory and on to Vandalia, IL. By mid century
6Funding?States’ righters blocked the spending of federal money on internal improvements.Kept highways from crossing state linesThis really doesn’t change until the Federal Highways Act of 1916.Places that need the roads desperately support government involvement, and those that didn’t (east coast) and had the least to gain don’t want government involvement.
7NATIONAL ROAD/CUMBERLAND ROAD EXCEPTION – the National Road a/k/a Cumberland Road1806 Jefferson signed a measure for a survey and construction of the road.Paved highwayMajor route westMD to Ill.Begun 1811, completed 1850sBy 1818 it ran from the Atlantic Coast to OhioB y 1838 to IllinoisFederal and state $Reduced transportation costs and opened up new markets600 miles, road twenty feet wide, clearing of 80 feet.
9three major stagecoach lines which carried passengers estimated there was about one tavern every mileStagecoach taverns – for travelers with moneyWagon stand – like a truck stop!Both provided food, lodging, drink
10traffic was heavy throughout the day and into the early evening two most common vehicles were the stagecoach and the Conestoga wagonStagecoach travel was designed with speed in mind. Stages would average 60 to 70 miles in one day.
11Conestoga WagonConestoga wagon was the "tractor-trailer" of the 19th Centurydesigned to carry heavy freight both east and west over the Allegheny Mountains.pulled by a team of six horses, averaged 15 miles a day.
12Henry Clay’s American System Based on protection and internal improvements – roads, canals and other transportation needs. Proposed a protective tariff for manufacturers, an improved market for farmers, and better transportation for agricultural and industrial goods.Would pay for transportation improvements with money from the tariff.Hoped it would bring prosperity to all sections of the country and to the nation – economic independence from the rest of the world.Problem was resistance by state’s right people who didn’t want the federal government to interfere in their state even by spending money on internal improvements!
13CANALS Erie Canal – 1825 connected east to west stimulated growth and canal buildinglower food prices in the east and more settlement in the west360 miles from Albany to Buffalo, NYReduced travel time from 20 days to 6Reduced cost of moving a ton of freight from $100 to $5By 1837 – 3000 miles of waterwaysCanals in Ohio and Indiana, from north to south, through much of the Ohio River Valley.
14Erie Canaleffect of the Canal was immediate and dramatic and settlers poured westWithin 15 years of the Canal's opening, New York was the busiest port in America, moving tonnages greater than Boston, Baltimore and New Orleans combined.
15Early 1820s – flatboats on rivers Carried the bulk of goods to market3000 flatboats a year on the Ohio RiverWater travel was much more comfortableBasic and affordableNamed b/c of flat undersideLarge deckHard to steerCould carry heavier loads
18STEAMBOATS 1807 – Fulton’s Clermont – faster and cheaper 1836 – 361 steamboats navigated western waterssteamboats brought two-way traffic to the rivers – could go upstream against the current.Villages at strategic locations evolved into commercial centers1840s – shallow draft boats on river rather than in it.Traveled the far reaches of the Miss. Riverflatboats still used a lot
191811 - passenger and freight route on the lower Mississippi River. a 150-mile trip taking 32 hours at an average speed of about 5 miles-per-hour. Later improved to 20 mphpassenger and freight route on the lower Mississippi River.Safer, easier, relatively safeWhole families could travel together, rather than send father ahead and family join him later.
21OVERLAND TRAILS Santa Fe Trail 1820’s – 30’s thousand mile trail from St. Louis to Santa Febegun by traders who braved deserts, mountains, and Indian attacksoon had so much traffic that Mexican traders started leading caravans east to Missouri and the peso became the main medium of exchange in Missouri.Pioneers showed that wagons could cross the plains and mountains and developed a new technique of organized caravans for common protection.
228 week journeyexperienced dust, mud, gnats, mosquitoes, and heat occasional swollen streams, wildfires, hailstorms, strong winds, or blizzards could imperil wagon trains.
23OREGON TRAIL Oregon Trail (Overland Trail) people bound for Oregon and Californiadidn’t travel in big caravans like on the Santa Fe Trail – most traveled in family groups and came from all over the UStrail went from Independence, MO. Along the North Platte River into what is now Wyoming, through South Pass down to Fort Bridger, then down the Snake River to the Columbia River and along the Columbia to the Willamette Valley in Oregon.2000 mile trip, 6 months, usually left in late spring (up to a year by boat until 1854 – Flying Cloud - 3 months)wagon train averaged miles/dayox-drawn, canvas covered wagons, called “prairie schooners”about 5000 people/year went (1845)by 1850, about 55,000/yearrarely attacked by Indiansmany never saw an IndianBy 1850 more problems b/c more settlersFew were adequately preparedSickness/deathChores/hard laborDivision of labor changed – women took on more tasks associated with men – gathering buffalo dung for fuel, helping get wagons unstuck, making bridges, etc.
24Expense?the fare for a sea journey to Oregon was quite expensive--few pioneer families could afford itmost Oregon-bound pioneers came from the central states--far from any sea port.the sea journey often took up to full year--versus 4-6 months by wagon.Ferry crossings – avg. $16
25Supplies?should provide himself with, at least, 200 pounds of flour, 150 pounds of bacon; ten pounds of coffee; twenty pounds of sugar; and ten pounds of salt."family of four would need over a thousand pounds of food to sustain them on the 2000 mile journey to Oregon. The only practical way to haul that much food was a wagon.For every person on a wagon train, an estimated 11 animals accompanied themOxen, mules, horses, cattle, sheep
26Wagons?Huge Conestoga wagons were never used by the pioneers--they were just too unwieldy.used small farm wagonswagon box measured only four feet by ten feetloaded them to the brim with food, farm implements and furniture--often over a ton of cargo.toolbox on the side, a water barrel, and most importantly, hardwood brakes.
27Early Railroads Early railroads risky Iron straps on wooden rails, worked loose and curled up, pierced railroad coachesWood for fuel – sparks caused fires, damaged clothingJerky, bumpy, wearying – water was the most comfortable way to travel.Railroads were economical, fast and reliable10 mph averageTwice as fast a stage coachFour times as fast a water
28RAILROADS late 1820s – cheaper to build than canals (1/3 the cost) early safety problems1830s competing with canals1st regular service was B & O RailroadQuickly changed towns like Cleveland, Cincinnati, Detroit, Chicago into booming commercial centers1840s and 1850s – railroad building, especially in the NortheastCheap and rapid transportation promoted western agriculture by linking Il and Io to northeastStrategic advantage to civil war1867 NY Central Railroad – NY to Chicago4500 miles of trackBaltimore, Ohio and Penn. Railroad – connected eastern ports with Chicago and MidwestMay 10, 1869 Promontory Point, Utah – transcontinental railroad completed.1883 – Atchison, Topeka and Sante Fe Railroad – carried between Kansas City and CA.North Pacific – MN to Washington
29Transcontinental Railroad Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869, as the Union Pacific tracks joined those of the Central Pacific Railroad.
30Expense? Dangers? Time? Omaha to California 1st class $111.002nd class $80.003rd class $40Dangers: washouts, buffalo, train robberies, IndiansTime? 4 days, 4 hours, 40 minutes
31OCEAN TRAVEL early 1800s regular service weekly from NY to Liverpool 1845 – 52 transatlantic shipping lines in NYC with 3 sailings a week1845 – first clipper ship (Rainbow) – doubled the speedBuilt for speed, sleek construction, fast but lacked cargo space.1854 – Flying Cloud – 89 days, 8 hours from NY to San Francisco