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Northeast High School GHSGT Junior Academy Domain: Cells and Heredity Mrs. C. Dinkins-Instructor March 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Northeast High School GHSGT Junior Academy Domain: Cells and Heredity Mrs. C. Dinkins-Instructor March 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Northeast High School GHSGT Junior Academy Domain: Cells and Heredity Mrs. C. Dinkins-Instructor March 2009

2 Domain 1: Cells and Heredity Overview of the Domain Students describe the structures of cells and the structure and function of their components. o Students examine the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Students explain the process of inheritance of genetic traits. o Students differentiate between DNA and RNA, recognizing the role of each in heredity. o Students demonstrate understanding of Mendels Laws in genetic inheritance and variability. o Students discuss the use of DNA technology in the fields of medicine and agriculture. Students analyze the similarities and differences between organisms of different kingdoms.

3 Assessment of this domain focuses on the following: Describing the roles of cell organelles in the following: information feedback motility obtaining, storing, and using energy protein construction reproduction transport of material waste disposal Differentiating the functions of the macromolecules: carbohydrates lipids nucleic acids proteins understanding the relationships between single-celled and multi- celled organisms, on a broad, conceptual level differentiating how organisms from different kingdoms obtain, transform, and transport, energy and/or material.

4 Inorganic vs. Organic Compounds Inorganic Water Acids and Bases- pH Organic Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

5 Water About 60-90% of an organism is water Water is used in most reactions in the body Water is called the universal solvent

6 Water Properties Polarity Cohesion Adhesion Surface Tension

7 Acids Taste sour Examples: citric acid (think lemons) vinegar (5% acetic acid) carbonic acid (for carbonation of pop) stomach acid, sweat

8 Bases Taste bitter Feel slippery Examples: detergents soap household ammonia Blood (slightly)

9 Acids Number of hydrogen ions in solutions is greater than water HCl H + + Cl -

10 Bases Number of hydroxide ions in solution is greater than water NaOH Na + + OH -

11 pH Scale Compares the concentrations of H+ ions ranges from 0 to 14 7 is neutral (pure water)

12 Macromolecules


14 Scientists of Cell Discovery and the Cell Theory Robert Hooke Anton van Leewenhoek Robert Brown Matthias Schleiden Theodor Schwann Rudolph Virchow

15 The Cell Theory The modern tenets of the Cell Theory include: 1. All known living things are made up of cells. 2. The cell is structural & functional unit of all living things. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division. (Spontaneous Generation does not occur). 4. Cells contains hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. 5. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition. 6. All energy flow (metabolism & biochemistry) of life occurs within cells.

16 Types of Cells Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Single-celled and Multi-celled organism Plant vs. Animal

17 Plant vs. Animal Cells

18 Cell Organelles el/drag_gr11/organell.htm el/drag_gr11/organell.htm ience/Sbi3a1/cells/cellquiz.htm ience/Sbi3a1/cells/cellquiz.htm /cellquiz.html

19 Cell Transport Cell Membrane Structure Passive vs. Active Transport Homeostasis Tonicity- Isotonic, Hypertonic and Hypotonic Solutions

20 Crossing the Plasma Membrane Passive Transport No energy needed WITH the gradient Diffusion Facilitated diffusion Osmosis Active Transport ENERGY used AGAINST the gradient Can be through a protein Bulk transport and pumping Endocytosis Exocytosis

21 Cellular Energy ATP-ADP Cycle Photosynthesis Cell Respiration

22 Six Kingdoms

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