Presentation on theme: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch."— Presentation transcript:
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity… -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
Breakdown of Ancien Regime (Old Oder) Origins of the French Revolution
Economic Causes Public opinion resisted increase in taxes Govt financed its enormous expenditures through borrowed $ In 1780 debt was so bad that 50% of Frances budget went to pay interest only; 25% went to military; 6% to king and court at Versailles; less than 20% went to function of state Couldnt declare bankruptcy; no central bank couldnt print $; French currency was gold Had to increase taxes; tax system was unfair; to increase revenues you would have to change the system
Social Causes: Old Regime (Ancien Regime) Since Middle Ages 25 million inhabitants of France were legally divided into 3 orders or estates.
The 3 Estates 1 st Estate: Roman Catholic clergy. 100,000 members owned 10% of land; paid voluntary gift every 5 years in taxes; church levied a tax (tithe) on landowners of about 10%. 2nd estate: 400,000 (2%) noblemen and women who owned 25% of land; taxed lightly or not at all; had many manorial privileges – taxed the peasants, fishing and hunting rights. 3rd estate: commoners: »few: lawyers, merchants, officials (educated and wealthy) bourgeoisie – middle class »more: artisans and unskilled day laborers »majority: peasants and agricultural workers
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head!
Out With the Old Old Regime no longer corresponded to social reality –social system still based on feudal times –now society was based on wealth and education; emerging elite (aristocracy and bourgeoisie) that was frustrated with bureaucratic/absolute monarchy
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes 1 st What is the Third Estate? Everything! 2 nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing! 3 rd What does it demand? To become something therein! Abbé Sieyès
Political Causes Weak King: Louis XVI –careless, heartless, foolish; wrong man at the wrong time –most hated for his Austrian wife, Marie Antoinette –lived extravagantly –depleted the French treasury
The French Monarchy: Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
Let Them Eat Cake! YMarie Antoinette NEVER said that! YMadame Deficit YThe Austrian Whore
Stage 1 of Revolution Moderate Stage: 1789 – 1792
Louis calls Estate General (Congress) Estates General had not been summoned in over 200 years! 1st and 2nd estate dominate the talks; given uneven vote 3rd estate urges reform, relief for the poor, & equal voice Weeks of arguing; 3rd estate leaves meets on the Kings Tennis Court
Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
Tennis Court Oath: a vow to save France from ruin Conservatives gather on the right, liberals on the left Call themselves National Assembly and start making laws (Does this have some precedent in the American Revolution?)
The Tennis Court Oath by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
Bastille Day (July 14, 1789) Rioting throughout Paris; mob showed up at the Kings prison (the Bastille) looking for weapons Sparked the Great Fear; countryside peasants attacked landlords for food stores
Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789 YA rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. Y18 died. Y73 wounded. Y7 guards killed. YIt held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].
August 4, 1789: National Assembly meets Ends serfdom, feudalism and all class privilege Liberte, Egalite and Fraternite Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Called for the creation of a limited monarchy
National Assembly August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) Liberté!Egalité! Fraternité!
The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen! Citizen!
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Posed New Dilemmas 1.Did women have equal rights with men? 2.What about free blacks in the colonies? 3.How could slavery be justified if all men were born free? 4.Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights?
National Assembly (1789 – 1792) Reform France: church lands are confiscated; sold to pay debt Radicals called for the death of the King and nobles (King tried to escape 1790 to Austria) émigrés: nobles fled France for more friendly countries Upper class targeted by mobs and killed Eventually dissolves monarchy and declares France a republic
Stage 2 of Revolution Reign of Terror 1793 – 1794)
Reign of Terror Time of crisis: England and Spain join Austria and Prussia in opposing the revolution; food shortages and counterrevolution in western France Power struggle between Radicals (Jacobins) and moderates Girondins Jacobins take control of the legislature and install an emergency government Committee for Public Safety headed by Robespierre
The Political Spectrum Jacobins Montagnards (The Mountain) Girondists Monarchíen (Royalis ts) 1790s: The Plain (swing votes) TODAY:
Reign of Terror Planned economy and Levee en masse (national conscription) and reign of terror: round up nobles for execution; thousands sent to national razor (guillotine). Jan. 21, 1793: Radicals execute Louis XVI and his family Wanted a republic of virtue Changed the names of months; abolished Sunday
Louis XVIs Head (January 21, 1793) c The trial of the king was hastened by the discovery in a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents. c They proved conclusively Louis knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention. c The National Convention voted 387 to 334 to execute the monarchs.
The Death of Citizen Louis Capet Matter for reflection for the crowned jugglers. So impure blood doesnt soil our land!
Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine
Maximilien Robespierre Orders 1,000 of executions Uses spies; put people to death if they disagreed with the Revolution Killed famous revolutionary leaders that he saw as a threat (Danton, DesMoulins) 40 – 50,000 killed in all including peasants for ridiculous reasons; bartender was killed for serving sour wine
Different Social Classes Executed 28% 31% 25% 8% 7%
The National Razor The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939! The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!
The Radicals Arms: No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!
Reaction Stage (1794 – 1798) Moderates react; former members of National Assembly turn on Robespierre; hes executed (1794) Girondins readmitted People are sick of the killing and the chaos; terror did not help advance the revolution
The Arrest of Robespierre
The Revolution Consumes Its Own Children! Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.
(1795) National Assembly meets and writes new constitution Power given to intellectuals Five man directory formed (executive branch) Controlled by wealthy merchants that wanted to expand their wealth; overturned planned economy upset the sanscoullote
Resources http: //www.pptpalooza.net/. Susan Pojer, Howrace Greeley High School. http: //www.pptpalooza.net/. Susan Pojer, Howrace Greeley High School. http: //www.pptpalooza.net/ http: //www.pptpalooza.net/ Censer, J.R., & Hunt, L. (2001). Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution. University Park, PA (The Pennsylvania State University Press). Censer, J.R., & Hunt, L. (2001). Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution. University Park, PA (The Pennsylvania State University Press).