2-- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity…-- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
3Breakdown of Ancien Regime (Old Oder) Origins of the French Revolution
4Economic Causes Public opinion resisted increase in taxes Govt financed its enormous expenditures through borrowed $In 1780 debt was so bad that 50% of France’s budget went to pay interest only; 25% went to military; 6% to king and court at Versailles; less than 20% went to function of stateCouldn’t declare bankruptcy; no central bank couldn’t print $; French currency was goldHad to increase taxes; tax system was unfair; to increase revenues you would have to change the system
8Social Causes: Old Regime (Ancien Regime) Since Middle Ages 25 million inhabitants of France were legally divided into 3 orders or estates.
9The 3 Estates1st Estate: Roman Catholic clergy. 100,000 members owned 10% of land; paid “voluntary gift” every 5 years in taxes; church levied a tax (tithe) on landowners of about 10%.2nd estate: 400,000 (2%) noblemen and women who owned 25% of land; taxed lightly or not at all; had many manorial privileges – taxed the peasants, fishing and hunting rights.3rd estate: commoners:few: lawyers, merchants, officials (educated and wealthy) bourgeoisie – middle classmore: artisans and unskilled day laborersmajority: peasants and agricultural workers
10The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Clergy1st Estate1Aristocracy2nd Estate11Commoners3rd EstateLouis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
11The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head! Clergy1st Estate300Aristocracy2nd Estate300648Commoners3rd Estate
12Out With the Old Old Regime no longer corresponded to social reality social system still based on feudal timesnow society was based on wealth and education; emerging elite (aristocracy and bourgeoisie) that was frustrated with bureaucratic/absolute monarchy
13Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes 1st What is the Third Estate? Everything!2nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!3rd What does it demand? To become something therein!Abbé Sieyès
14Political Causes Weak King: Louis XVI careless, heartless, foolish; wrong man at the wrong timemost hated for his Austrian wife, Marie Antoinettelived extravagantlydepleted the French treasury
15Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI The French Monarchy:Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
16Let Them Eat Cake! Marie Antoinette NEVER said that! “Madame Deficit” “The Austrian Whore”
17Stage 1 of RevolutionModerate Stage: 1789 – 1792
18Louis calls Estate General (Congress) Estates General had not been summoned in over 200 years!1st and 2nd estate dominate the talks; given uneven vote3rd estate urges reform, relief for the poor, & equal voiceWeeks of arguing; 3rd estate leaves meets on the King’s Tennis Court
19Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
20Tennis Court Oath: a vow to save France from ruin Conservatives gather on the right, liberals on the leftCall themselves “National Assembly” and start making laws(Does this have some precedent in the American Revolution?)
21“The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
22Bastille Day (July 14, 1789)Rioting throughout Paris; mob showed up at the King’s prison (the Bastille) looking for weaponsSparked the Great Fear; countryside peasants attacked landlords for food stores
23Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789 A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly.18 died.73 wounded.7 guards killed.It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].
24August 4, 1789: National Assembly meets Ends serfdom, feudalism and all class privilegeLiberte, Egalite and FraterniteDeclaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenCalled for the creation of a limited monarchy
25National Assembly 1789 - 1791 August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 Liberté!Egalité!Fraternité!August Decrees August 4-11, 1789(A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)
26The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. The Tricolor (1789)The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.Citizen!
27The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Posed New Dilemmas Did women have equal rights with men?What about free blacks in the colonies?How could slavery be justified if all men were born free?Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights?
28National Assembly (1789 – 1792)Reform France: church lands are confiscated; sold to pay debtRadicals called for the death of the King and nobles (King tried to escape 1790 to Austria)émigrés: nobles fled France for more friendly countriesUpper class targeted by mobs and killedEventually dissolves monarchy and declares France a republic
29Stage 2 of RevolutionReign of Terror 1793 – 1794)
30Reign of TerrorTime of crisis: England and Spain join Austria and Prussia in opposing the revolution; food shortages and counterrevolution in western FrancePower struggle between Radicals (Jacobins) and moderates GirondinsJacobins take control of the legislature and install an emergency government Committee for Public Safety headed by Robespierre
31The Political Spectrum TODAY:1790s:The Plain (swing votes)Montagnards (“The Mountain”)GirondistsMonarchíen (Royalists)Jacobins
32Reign of TerrorPlanned economy and Levee en masse (national conscription) and reign of terror: round up nobles for execution; thousands sent to “national razor’ (guillotine).Jan. 21, 1793: Radicals execute Louis XVI and his familyWanted a republic of virtueChanged the names of months; abolished Sunday
33Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793) The trial of the king was hastened by the discovery in a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents.They proved conclusively Louis’ knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention.The National Convention voted 387 to 334 to execute the monarchs.
34The Death of “Citizen” Louis Capet Matter for reflection for the crowned jugglers.So impure blood doesn’t soil our land!
36Maximilien Robespierre Orders 1,000 of executionsUses spies; put people to death if they disagreed with the RevolutionKilled famous revolutionary leaders that he saw as a threat (Danton, DesMoulins)40 – 50,000 killed in all including peasants for ridiculous reasons; bartender was killed for serving sour wine
37Committee for Public Safety Revolutionary Tribunals. 300,000 arrested.16,000 – 50,000 executed.
40The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939! The National RazorThe last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!
41No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution! The Radical’s Arms:No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!
42Reaction Stage (1794 – 1798)Moderates react; former members of National Assembly turn on Robespierre; he’s executed (1794)Girondins readmittedPeople are sick of the killing and the chaos; terror did not help advance the revolution
44The Revolution Consumes Its Own Children! Danton Awaits Execution, 1793Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.
45(1795) National Assembly meets and writes new constitution Power given to intellectualsFive man directory formed (executive branch)Controlled by wealthy merchants that wanted to expand their wealth; overturned planned economy upset the sanscoullote
46ResourcesSusan Pojer, Howrace Greeley High School.Censer, J.R., & Hunt, L. (2001). Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution. University Park, PA (The Pennsylvania State University Press).