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Vocabulary Solute Solvent Solubility Saturated Supersaturated Unsaturated Colligative property.

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Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary Solute Solvent Solubility Saturated Supersaturated Unsaturated Colligative property."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Vocabulary Solute Solvent Solubility Saturated Supersaturated Unsaturated Colligative property

3 Vocabulary Aqueous Concentrated Dilute Dilution Molarity m/m percent m/v percent

4 Vocabulary v/v percent Molality Normality Miscible Immiscible

5 Solubility How much will dissolve in a specific amount of a specific solvent at a given temperature. Typically reported as g/100 g solvent Solubility of solids and liquids increase with temperature. Solubility of a gas decreases with temperature

6 Rate of solution Solids and liquids dissolve faster when: Temperature is increased It is shaken or stirred Solute is ground up

7 Solubility curve

8 How stuff dissolves

9 9 types of solution SoluteSolventExample GasGasair Liquid Gashumidity Solid Gas----- Gas Liquidsoda Liquid Liquidvinegar, antifreeze Solid LiquidKool Aid Gas Solid Liquid Solid Amalgam Solid Solid Alloy: Brass, steel

10 Solution states Phase of matter of final solution

11 Molarity M Moles solute per liter of solution Mol/L

12 Molality m Moles solute per kg solvent Used with colligative properties

13 Colligative Properties Freezing point depression Boiling point elevation Vapor pressure depression Read p Depends ONLY on the number of particles in solution, not what they are. Dissolving 1 mole of NaCl in water results in 2 moles of dissolved particles: Na and Cl

14 Freezing point depression 1. Calculate molality 2. Multiply by vant Hoff factor 3. Multiply by freezing point depression constant (0.512 o C/m for water) 4. Subtract from 0 o C

15 Boiling point elevation 1. Calculate molality 2. Multiply by vant Hoff factor 3. Multiply by boiling point elevation constant (1.86 o C/m for water) 4. Add to 100 o C

16 Dilutions The way that always works: determine moles, then adjust volume with water. Shortcut : Conc x volume = Conc x volume Make sure you are working in the same units Stock solution: the concentrated solution of known concentration. It is the starting point for dilutions.

17 Solution stoichiometry Use molarity to find moles of known Use stoichiometry to find moles of unknown May have to use moles of unknown and volume to determine molarity of unknown if asked (rare)


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