Presentation on theme: "Cell Cycle Vocabulary and Notes Biology. Centrioles – one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope. Chromatid."— Presentation transcript:
Cell Cycle Vocabulary and Notes Biology
Centrioles – one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope. Chromatid – one of two identical sister parts of a replicated chromosome.
Centromere – area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached. Spindle fiber – fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes during mitosis.
Sister chromatids – the two parts that make up replicated chromome, which are connected at the centromere Daughter cells –the two new cells produced at the end of cytokinesis
Diploid – term used to refer to a cell that contians both sets of homologous chromosomes Centrosome – the area where the centrioles are located during mitosis
Link to cell cycle animation hill.com/sites/ /student_view0/ chapter2/animation__how_the_cell_cycle_ works.html
Stages of the Cell Cycle Interphase (longest part of the cell cycle) G1 (Growth 1) S (Synthesis) - DNA copies G2 (Growth 2) - cell prepares for division M (cell division) – includes mitosis and cytokinesis
Interphase (technically not part of mitosis, but it is included in the cell cycle) Cell is in a resting phase, performing cell functions DNA replicates (copies) Organelles double in number, to prepare for division
Mitosis nuclear division, number of chromosomes remains the same
Phases of Mitosis Prophase Spindle forms Centrioles move to opposite poles Chromosomes become visible
Metaphase Chromosomes line up along the equator
Anaphase Centromeres divide Chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
Telophase Nuclear membrane forms around each group of chromosomes Chromosomes unwind Cytokinesis begins
Cytokinesis The process by which the cytoplasm divides and one cell becomes two individual cells. The process is different in plants and animals