Presentation on theme: "Unit 3- Revolution in Georgia Lesson 4: Westward Expansion"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 3- Revolution in Georgia Lesson 4: Westward Expansion Georgia StudiesUnit 3- Revolution in GeorgiaLesson 4: Westward Expansion
2Lesson 4: Westward Expansion Essential Question:-How do political policies and new technologies influence growth and development?
3Education and Religion The University of Georgia chartered in 1785 as nation’s first land-grant university; opened for classes in 1801Georgia Female College (later Wesleyan College) opened in 1836Religious groups, such as the Baptist and Methodist churches, also began to spread across Georgia. As more towns were established churches became the centers for social and commuity life.
4Cotton and the Cotton Gin Cash Crop-Crops which are grown to be soldEli Whitney in 1793 invented a machine for separating cotton seeds from its fiberIncreased the amount cotton growers could process each dayThe cotton gin used wire teeth on a turning cylinder to separate the seed from fiberOther inventions, such as Cyrus McCormick’s Mechanical Reaper also helped farmers to become more productive.Since farmers were now able to do more work each day, many farmers wanted to move westward so that they could have even larger farms.
5The Western TerritoryIn 1802, Georgia ceded its land claims west of the Chattahoochee River to the federal government for $1.25 millionPresident Thomas Jefferson doubled the nation’s size in 1803 with the Louisiana territory purchase; the U.S. paid France $15 million for land that stretched to the Rocky MountainsMany people began to move west across the Oregon and Santa Fe trails, many of these hoping to find gold. Between 1848 and 1850, the population of California increased tenfold due to the major gold rush.Georgia’s farmers now had access to a large amount of land.
6Frontier Georgia Undeveloped land in central and western Georgia Few settlers; much land given away in land lotteries or through the Headright SystemFar-flung trading posts were only storiesOften danger lurked from hostile attacksSocial activities often centered around necessary workThe country store became the center of activity; few luxuries were available
7Headright SystemIndian land in Georgia east of the Oconee River was given to settlersEvery white male counted as a head of household and had the “right” to receive up to 1,000 acresThis was generally replaced in 1803 by a land lottery for government-owned land west of the OconeeAll white heads-of-household could buy a lottery chance and win land; millions of acres in several states were given away
8Yazoo Land FraudAround 1795, four companies bribed the governor and legislatorsBought millions of acres in western Georgia for 1 ½ ¢ an acreThe public found out and protested; the legislators involved were voted out of officeThe General Assembly repealed the law approving the sale; the federal government paid more than $4 million to help Georgia settle Yazoo land claims
9Early Roads in GeorgiaRailroads, most built after 1830, replaced horses, stagecoaches, and boats. Railroads helped Georgia’s citizens travel and trade much more efficiently.Most Georgia roads ran east to west; they were former Indian footpathsPlank roads over wetlands that featured “pikes” or gates were called turnpikesTravelers paid a toll, or fee at each pike; the Old Federal Road connected Athens north to Tennessee
10Georgia’s Capital City After the American Revolution Georgia’s capital city moved from the original capital (Savannah) to Augusta.As Georgia’s population began to move farther west Georgia decided to move its capital city; Louisville served as GA’s third capital city fromThe city of Milledgeville served as Georgia’s fourth capital cit from 1807 until after the Civil War (1868)The city of Terminus was created in 1837 and meant to serve as the end of a proposed railroad that originated in Chattanooga, Tennessee.Terminus was renamed Marthasville in 1843, after the daughter of former Governor Wilson LumpkinThe name was changed to Atlanta in Atlanta became Georgia’s fifth capital city in 1868.
11Unit 3: Revolution in Georgia Lesson 5: Indian Removal Georgia StudiesUnit 3: Revolution in GeorgiaLesson 5: Indian Removal
12Lesson 5: Indian Removal Essential Question:-How do economic and political factors affect disenfranchised groups? (e.g. Creeks and Cherokees)
13Creek IndiansSeries of clashes between Creek and settlers who pushed into their land known as Oconee WarTreaty of New York: Creek Chief Alexander McGillivray signed the treaty giving up all land east of the Oconee River, but could keep land on the west side; this angered Georgia settlers, who felt betrayed by their governmentLand treaties were often brokenRed Stick Creeks endorsed war to fight for their land claims; White Stick Creeks wanted peace
14The Creek WarRed Sticks attacked Fort Mims, killing more than 400 peopleThe Battle of Horseshoe Band, in Alabama, ended the Creek War in 1814; Andrew Jackson led the U.S. TroopsThe Creeks were forced to give up nearly all their land to the U. S. GovernmentThe Treaty of Indian Springs gave up last Creek lands in Georgia to the U. S. : Chief William McIntosh was later murdered by rival Creeks for signing the treaty
15Removal of the CreeksTreaty of Washington (1832) resulted in 5 million acres of Creek land ceded to the United StatesU.S. agreed to allow Creeks who wished to remain and live on 2 million of those acres; the U.S. promised to protect those who stayedThose who didn’t wish to stay would have to move to the western territoriesThe treaty was broker; by 1840, nearly all Creeks were forced to move west
16Cherokee CultureMost advanced of Georgia’s tribes; learned quickly from white settlersSome, like Chief James Vann, lived in large housesChief Vann encouraged ChristianitySequoyah developed a syllabary, a group of symbols that stand for whole syllables; it gave Cherokees a written form of their languageGovernment modeled on that of United States; capital at New Echota by 1825
17Cherokee RemovalIndian Removal Act of 1830-Signed by President Andrew Jackson; made the practice of forcibly removing Native Americans legal.Dahlonega Gold Rush-Gold was discovered on Cherokee land in north Georgia near the city of Dahlonega; heightened demand for Cherokee landThe Supreme Court of the United States and Chief Justice John Marshall decided that the Cherokee were a sovereign nation and should be allowed to rule themselves.Without the support of Chief John Ross, a rebellious Cherokee group signed a treaty giving away all Cherokee land
18The Trail of TearsBetween 1832 and 1835, Cherokees were stripped of their landIn the winter of 1838, thousand of Cherokees were forcibly removed to Oklahoma; about 4,000 died from disease, exposure, or hunger700 to 800 escaped and hid in the North Carolina mountains