Presentation on theme: "Early American History: Articles of Confederation-Constitution"— Presentation transcript:
1Early American History: Articles of Confederation-Constitution
2SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government.b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers (influence of Montesquieu), limited government, and the issue of slavery.d. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states’ rights.e. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams; include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties (Alexander Hamilton).
4Revolutionary War Ended by Treaty of Paris (1783) Government: 2nd Continental CongressArticles of Confederation
5Articles of Confederation a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government.
6Development of the Articles Plan drafted by John DickinsonSupported by Benjamin FranklinArticles of Confederation presented to Congress on July 12th, 1776Adopted by Congress - November 15th, 1777All states had agreed by 1781 – took effectGuaranteed each state “sovereignty, freedom and independence”
7Articles of Confederation Congress of the ConfederationMembers appointed by state legislaturesEach state had one voteRoles of the CongressConduct foreign affairsMake treatiesDeclare warCoin moneyEstablish post offices
8Weaknesses in the Articles Laws were hard to passNeeded 9 of 13 states to approveAmendments needed all 13 to approveCongress could not force the states to obey decisions or lawsCongress could not tax or raise an armyPrinted money that was not backed by specie
9The Land ProblemMany states had land claims that extended to Pacific OceanLand = moneyWestern territory of states was surrendered to Congress
10Land Ordinance of 1785 Western land – “Northwest Territory” Divided into townshipsTownships divided into acre lotsDID YOU KNOW: Each township had one lot reserved for a school. This was the first federal aid for public education.
11For public buildings/ veterans Typical TownshipSchoolFor public buildings/ veterans
12Also known as the Land Ordinance of 1787 Northwest OrdinanceAlso known as the Land Ordinance of 1787Established system of government for the Northwest territoriesBanned slavery in the territoryRoad to Statehood:3-5 states would be created out of the landWhen population reaches 5,000 eligible voters, it can elect a bicameral legislature and send a nonvoting member to CongressWhen population reaches 60,000 free residents, it becomes eligible for statehood and can draft a state constitution.Congress must then approve the new state
14Shays’ Rebellion (1786) Led by Daniel Shays in Western Massachusetts Farmers protested against high taxesSeized courthouses and closed down debtors courts/property auctionsConcerns: National government could not deal with issues that arise
15Call for Reform Congress called for a Constitutional Convention Purpose: Revise the Articles of ConfederationBegan May 14, 1787
16Constitutional Convention Met in secretWhy?Agreed to replace Articles with a new documentWould feature a stronger national government
17Virginia Plan First proposed plan of government Major parts: Bicameral Legislature (Congress)Representation based upon population or moneyLower house elected by voters, upper house by lowerExecutiveChosen by CongressJudiciaryBicameral: Legislature with 2 separate parts, or houses
18New Jersey Plan Counter proposal Major parts: Unicameral: Legislature with only 1 part (or house)Counter proposalMajor parts:Unicameral Legislature (Congress)Equal representationExecutive (more than 1)Chosen by Congress, removed by state governorsJudiciary (Supreme Court)Chosen by Congress
19Virginia Plan v. New Jersey Plan Bicameral CongressRepresentation based on population/$1 executive chosen by CongressSupported by large statesNEW JERSEYUnicameral CongressRepresentation based on equalityMore than 1 executive chosen by CongressSupported by small states
20Features of the Constitution c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers (influence of Montesquieu), limited government, and the issue of slavery.
21Constitutional Compromises Great (or Connecticut)3/5Commerce and Slave Trade
22Great Compromise Population or Equality? Debate over Representation Also called the Connecticut CompromiseDebate over RepresentationResult:Bicameral CongressUpper Chamber: SenateLower Chamber: House of RepresentativesPopulation or Equality?
23Great Compromise SENATE Smaller 2 per state HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Equality!HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVESLargerBased on populationDID YOU KNOW: The Connecticut Compromise has also been called the “Great Compromise,” because without it we may not have had a new Constitution!
24Slaves should not count!!! Issue of SlaverySince population counts, what about slaves?Slave-holding statesNon slave-holding statesSlaves should count!!!Slaves should not count!!!
25Three-Fifths Compromise Compromise by James Madison:All free persons counted, “all other persons” (i.e. slaves) count as five slaves equal three free people in terms of population.Used for both representation and taxes
27Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise Congress had the power to regulate tradeWhy could this be dangerous?Tariffs?Export duties not allowedImport duties allowedSlavery?Importation of slaves allowed until at least 1807Runaway slaves must be returned SouthRemember, the population of the North was greater than that of the South. Many in the southern states were worried that the new Constitution would not protect them.
28Concept:Separation of PowersThree Branches of Government
29Separation of Powers Concept: Influence of Montesquieu Contained in “Spirit of Laws” (1754)
30Limited Government Concept: Government is not all powerful The government must operate under certain laws and protect the rights of both people and the states
31Ticket out the DoorName one compromise, tell what it did and why you think it is important.Why do you think the members of the Constitutional Convention agreed to keep all of their discussions secret?
32Federalists Anti-Federalists VS.b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-Federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison.
33Federalists People who favored ratification of the new Constitution Supported a strong national governmentReasons:Needed one for security/prosperity
34Federalists Important Federalists: James Madison John Jay Alexander Hamilton
35Anti-FederalistsPeople who were opposed to ratification of the new ConstitutionOpposed to a strong, central governmentReasons:Illegal – Convention was only to change ArticlesWould destroy state’s rightsNew gov’t resembled a monarchy
36Anti-Federalists Important Anti-Federalists: George Mason Patrick HenryGeorge ClintonRichard Henry Lee
37Also known as “The Federalist Papers” Series of 85 essaysWritten between the fall of and spring of 1788By James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John JayMost cited essays:#10 – by James Madison#51 – by James Madison#84 – by Alexander HamiltonDID YOU KNOW: The Federalist Papers were written under the pseudonym Publius.DID YOU KNOW: Anti-federalist writings were later collected and published as the “Anti-Federalist Papers.”
38Arguments about form of government FEDERALISTSStronger national government was necessary for successThe national government should have most of the powerANTI-FEDERALISTSStronger national government was just as bad as living under a kingThe states should have most of the power
39Arguments about factions FEDERALISTSWould be easy to handle any problems that come upANTI-FEDERALISTSFactions would form due to long terms for Representatives and SenatorsFactions would not help the common peoplePeople only vote on Representatives
40Arguments about checks and balances FEDERALISTSBalancing powers between different people will make sure none become too powerfulANTI-FEDERALISTSMost of the powers should be in the state to be closer to the people to keep anyone from becoming too powerful
41Arguments about executive power FEDERALISTSConstitution favored election of richNo bill of rights to protect poorer and uneducated menANTI-FEDERALISTSToo much power in the hands of one manExecutive is not elected by the people
42Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804) First Secretary of the TreasuryOne of Washington’s closest advisorsInfluential Federalist
43James Madison (1751-1836) “Father of the Constitution” “Architect” of the ConstitutionInfluential Federalist
44Formal Approval of the Constitution RatificationFormal Approval of the Constitution
45Ratification Maryland - Apr. 28, 1788 Delaware - Dec. 7, 1787 Each state had to vote to approve the ConstitutionMaryland - Apr. 28, 1788Delaware - Dec. 7, 1787South Carolina - May 23, 1788Pennsylvania - Dec. 12, 1787New Hampshire - June 21, 1788New Jersey - Dec. 18, 1787Virginia - June 25, 1788Georgia - Jan. 2, 1788New York - July 26, 1788Connecticut - Jan. 9, 1788North Carolina - Nov. 21, 1788Massachusetts - Feb. 6, 1788Rhode Island - May 29, 1790
46The Bill of Rightsd. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states’ rights.
47Bill of Rights Anti-Federalist Concerns 1st Ten Amendments to the U.S. ConstitutionWhy were these passed?Anti-Federalist ConcernsPurpose: Protect rights of the people & states
481st - Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion, Assembly, Petition 2nd - Right to Bear Arms3rd - Cannot be made to quarter soldiers4th - Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures5th - Due process of law + no self-incrimination, double jeopardy6th - Rights of accused persons (ex. speedy and public trial)7th - Right of trial by jury in civil cases8th - No excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments9th - Other rights of the people10th - Powers reserved to the states
49As Protector of Individual Rights.. Freedom of SpeechCannot be madeto quarter soldiersRight to dueprocess of lawProtection againstdouble jeopardyTrial by JuryFreedom ofPetitionRight to a fairand speedy trialFreedom ofReligionRight to Bear ArmsProtection against cruelor unusual punishmentProtection fromunreasonable search& seizure
50As Protector of States’ Rights.. Amendment XThe powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.What does this mean?If a right is NOT given to the federal government, then it belongs to the states.For example:Congress is not given the right to give licenses to people – therefore, the states are the ones that do it. Each state can have it’s own individual laws.
51America Under the Constitution e. Explain the importance of the Presidencies of George Washington and John Adams; include the Whiskey Rebellion, non-intervention in Europe, and the development of political parties (Alexander Hamilton).
52George Washington (1732-1799) #1 President of the United States: (1st)President of Constitutional ConventionWar heroUnanimously elected first President of the United States under the U.S. Constitution (1789)French & Indian War Revolutionary War"First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen."
54Washington’s Administration Vice President: John AdamsCabinet:Secretary of State: Thomas JeffersonSecretary of War: Henry KnoxSecretary of the Treasury: Alexander HamiltonAttorney General: Edmund RandolphCreated by Congress – not mentioned in Constitution
55Major Events of Washington’s Presidency Creation of Cabinet (1789)Creation of Supreme Court / Court SystemJudiciary Act of 1789Monetary PolicyGovernment would pay off all of its debts & assume much of states’ debtsBank of the United States (National Bank)Jay’s TreatyWhiskey Rebellion
56Judiciary Act of 1789 Established federal court system District court in each stateSupreme Court6 justicesDefined the powers/jurisdiction of each court
57Bank of the United States Purpose:To provide stability to the financial systemTo make credit available
58Building that housed the First Bank of the United States in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
59Argument over the Bank of the U.S. Loose ConstructionSupported by Alexander HamiltonCongress could do anything UNLESS the Constitution said otherwise“Necessary and Proper” clauseStrict ConstructionSupported by Thomas JeffersonCongress could ONLY do what the Constitution specifically stated
60Jay’s Treaty (1793) Goal: Avoid another war w/ Britain Main Results: Solve issues remaining from RevolutionMain Results:British would leave Northwest Territory in 1 yearSmall US ships could trade in British West IndiesRejection of American position on neutral rightsSearches of American vessels/Impressment of sailors would continueNo compensation for American ships/slaves taken
61Flags carried by members of the rebellion Whiskey RebellionFlags carried by members of the rebellionCauses:1791 – Congress passes a tax on whiskeyRebellion:1794 – 6,000 men attacked U.S. Marshals attempting to enforce the taxWashington leads army of 13,000 – rebellion endsResults:Shows power of the federal governmentgrainwhiskeyEasier to transport
62Non-intervention in Europe U.S. foreign policyFirst stated in George Washington’s Farewell Address“Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence therefore it must be unwise to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships, or enmities Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European Ambition, Rivalship, Interest, Humour, or Caprice?”
63Development of Political Parties People divided over their view of the future of AmericaDemocratic-RepublicansLed by Thomas JeffersonStrict ConstructionistsFavored farmers, poorFederalistsLed by Alexander HamiltonLoose ConstructionistsFavored industry, rich
64Development of Political Parties FEDERALISTSAmerica should be run by wealthy & educatedFavored in the NorthFavored industry/ urban areasDEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANSFarmers and middle class could be trusted to run countryFavored in the SouthFavored rural areas
65Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804) First Secretary of the TreasuryFounded Bank of U.S.Influential FederalistBelieved in rule by rich & powerful
66Thomas Jefferson (1755-1804) Third President of the United States Influential RepublicanBelieved in rule by the everyday manFeared industry
67President of the United States: 1797-1801 (2nd) #2John Adams ( )President of the United States: (2nd)Politician from MassachusettsServed as Vice President under WashingtonHandpicked by Washington to be his successorFederalist
69Adams’ Administration Vice President: Thomas JeffersonAdministration was a disasterMany Federalists were still loyal to Alexander Hamilton, not John AdamsVice President Jefferson and President Adams did not get alongRepublican
70"Millions for defense, but not XYZ Affair (1798)In response to Jay’s Treaty (1793), France began seizing American shipsNegotiationsThree men sent to France to make peaceCharles Pinckney, John Marshall, Elbridge GerryNegotiations w/ France broke downFrench officials demanded bribesDID YOU KNOW: After the XYZ Affair, the U.S. and France fought a short, undeclared naval war."Millions for defense, but notone penny for tribute!"
71Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) Passed in response to undeclared war with FrancePurpose:protect the U.S. from foreign influences
72Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) What it did:Lengthened citizenship residence requirement from 5 to 14 yrs.Gave President authority to deport any “dangerous” foreignerIllegal to “print, write, or speak in a scandalous or malicious way against the government”Result:Weakened Republicans
73Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions (1798) Written by T. Jefferson & J. MadisonDemocratic-RepublicansState legislatures in KY and VA argued the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutionalTherefore, states did not have to obey these lawsDoctrine of "Nullification"
74Election of 1800 Jefferson vs. Adams Republicans win “Constitutional Crisis”
75Meant to be Vice President Election of 1800Meant to be Vice PresidentT. Jefferson and Aaron Burr receive the same number of electoral college votes73 eachIn case of tie = House of Reps. VotesFederalists hoped to cause confusion by supporting BurrHamilton disliked Jefferson but hated BurrGives support to JeffersonJefferson officially selected president just a few weeks before inauguration
77Result of the Election of 1800 Twelfth AmendmentSeparate vote in Electoral College for Pres. & VPIn case of tie/no majority:House votes on Pres.Senate votes on Vice Pres.Vice President must be eligible to serve as Pres.Each state with 1 vote